Information

Is there a research on correlation between honesty and success?

Is there a research on correlation between honesty and success?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Did anyone do a research on corelation between honesty and success, establishing individual's honesty through a provocative experiment and comparing it with his/her salary amount, satisfaction of achievement etc? Or anything close to that?


No provocative experiment needed. Some of the major taxonomies within personality psychology have well-validated measures for honesty, and have been used in massive samples that could already address this question. I would start by doing a search on Google Scholar for those measures and the types of success you mention. E.g.,

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honesty-humility_factor_of_the_HEXACO_model_of_personality

Notice that the trait most often associated with success is Conscientiousness, which may include an aspect of honesty:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscientiousness


To add to the existing answer, honesty-humility is a major factor in the HEXACO framework of personality.

There is a comprehensive list of papers using the HEXACO framework here organised under a wide range of headings: http://hexaco.org/references

My sense of the literature is that honesty-humility in the HEXACO framework is related more to ethical behaviour and lower levels of deviant behaviour (e.g., counterproductive work behaviours, criminality, deviance, etc.), as well as lower levels of self-interest and egotism.

I don't think it has a major direct relationship with success and achievement, at least empirically. But I haven't reviewed the literature.

Theoretically, deviant behaviour would often reduce life success. Getting fired, damaging your reputation, going to prison, getting expelled from school, and so on. However, also, some degree of self-interest may also assist in personal achievement. Furthermore, it may just be that it's not the most relevant dimension of personality: i.e., conscientiousness and abilities are probably more related to achievement.


(This answer your question only partially).

Honesty and success are made of many things. Quite a bunch of studies found interesting correlations between honesty and success at the collective/cultural level. (They measure the success in term of wealth, trust, quality of the institution, rights, etc.).

Just a sample to give an idea:

● Edward C. Banfield (1958) shows some correlation between many aspects of honesty and success (he wrote a book about it The Moral Basis of a Backward Society).

● Arrow (1972) & Fukuyama (1995) found that the level of trust in a society strongly predicts its economic success.

● Guido Enrico Tabellini (an Italian economist) find that "there is not just one institutional failure. Typically, the countries or regions that fail in one dimension also fail in many other aspects of collective behavior."

● Inglehart (1990, 1997) analyses of a broader range of societies, and argue that cultural values fundamentally drive economic performance and democratic stability.

● Landes, D. S. (1998) & Rogers D. found that people's value shape their wealth (they wrote a book: The wealth and poverty of nations: why some are so rich and some so poor)


References: (you'll find many others in the references of their studies).

● Banfield, E. C. (1958). with the assistance of Laura Fasano Banfield. The moral basis of a backward society.

● Arrow, K. J. (1972). Economic welfare and the allocation of resources for invention. In Readings in industrial economics (pp. 219-236). Palgrave, London.

● Porta, R. L., Lopez-De-Silane, F., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1996). Trust in large organizations (No. w5864). National Bureau of Economic Research.

● Tabellini, G. (2008). Presidential Address: Institutions and Culture. Journal of the European Economic Association, 6(2/3), 255-294. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40282643

● Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton university press.


Definition of Positive Correlation in Psychology With Examples

Positive correlation can be defined as the direct relationship between two variables, i.e., when the value of one variable increases, the value of the other increases too. This post explains this concept in psychology, with the help of some examples.

Positive correlation can be defined as the direct relationship between two variables, i.e., when the value of one variable increases, the value of the other increases too. This post explains this concept in psychology, with the help of some examples.

“The consumption of ice cream (pints per person) and the number of murders in New York are positively correlated. That is, as the amount of ice cream sold per person increases, the number of murders increases. Strange but true!”
― Deborah J. Rumsey, Statistics For Dummies®

Psychology uses various methods for its research, and one of them is studying the correlation between any two variables. Correlation is nothing but the measure of degree of relation between two variables. It can be plotted graphically to show the relationship between them.

Correlation studies the relationship between two variables, and its coefficient can range from -1 to 1. A positively inclining relationship is nothing but positive correlation. Its value can range from 0 to 1. Positive correlation implies there is a positive relationship between the two variables, i.e., when the value of one variable increases, the value of other variable also increases, and the opposite happens when the value of one variable decreases. Correlation is used in many fields, such as mathematics, statistics, economics, psychology, etc.

Let’s take a hypothetical example, where a researcher is trying to study the relationship between two variables, namely ‘x’ and ‘y’. The example will help you understand what is positive correlation.

Let ‘x’ be the number of hours that a student has studied, and ‘y’ be his score in a test (maximum marks: 120). The researcher picks up 20 students from a class, and records the number of hours they studied for the test. The researcher then records the marks scored by the students in the test. We try to compare the relationship between the number of hours the student has devoted in studying, and his corresponding score.

x (Number of Hours) y (Score in Test)
4 47
2 23
3 31
5 55
6 66
5.5 65
8 82
3.5 48
10 94
9.5 80
8.5 80
6.7 62
8.9 84
2.5 38
4.7 35
3.3 43
5.2 51
10.1 101
7.6 84
9.3 70

► The given data is of two variables ‘x’ and ‘y’. There are 20 observations recorded by the researcher. We will plot these points on a graph.

► After plotting the points on the graph, we get a scatter diagram. The scatter diagram indicates the trend, and displays whether the correlation is positive or negative.

► An upward trend usually indicates a positive correlation, and on the other hand, a downward trend usually indicates a negative correlation. The degree of relation will however differ every time. Thus, the scatter diagram helps us visualize the correlation.

► In psychology, correlation can be helpful in studying behavioral patterns. For example, if you want to study whether those students who are depressed fail in their examinations or score poorly, you can plot your observations and study the association between them. If there is a positive association, it implies that depressed students are more prone to fail in their examinations.

Graphical Representation of Data: Scatter Diagram

What Do We Observe?

► After plotting the points on the graph, we can notice the upward/rising trend of the scatter diagram. This indicates that as the value of variable ‘x’ increases, the value of ‘y’ also increases. Thus, this indicates that the students who have put in more hours of study have scored better in the test.

► However, this survey method has its own limitations. This data is based on the statistics of 20 students in a class with different IQ levels. Though the trend here observed is positive, there are high chances that the IQ level of that student can play an important contributing factor too. The inference that more the hours you study, better the score, might hold true, if it is assumed that the IQ level of all the students is similar, on an average. However, there are other variables that cannot be ruled out, such as the level of concentration of the students, which can influence the scores.

Examples of Positive Correlation in Real Life

► If I walk more, I will burn more calories.
► With the growth of the company, the market value of company stocks increase.
► When demand increases, price of the product increases (at same supply level).
► When you study more, you score high in the exams.
► When you pay more to your employees, they’re motivated to perform better.
► With increase in consumption of junk food, there is increase in obesity.
► When you meditate more, your concentration level increases.
► Couples who spend more time together have a healthier and long-lasting relationship.

It must be noted that correlation does not imply causation. A direct relationship or positive relationship does not imply that they are the cause and effect of each other. A correlation between two variables aids the researcher in determining the association between them. However, statistical data is based on a sample, and hence, can sometimes lead to misleading results. A strong positive correlation does not imply there is necessarily a relationship between them it might be due to an unknown external variable. Hence, researchers have to be careful about the statistical data while drawing inferences.


Revealing complex relations between personality and fitness: HEXACO personality traits, life-time reproductive success and the age at first birth

We explored the relations between HEXACO personality traits and evolutionary fitness.

Low Honesty and Openness and high Emotionality predicted the number of children.

Low Openness and high Conscientiousness predicted the number of grandchildren.

Extraversion was negatively related to the age at first birth.

Findings suggest that HEXACO traits are likely under current natural selection.


Self-Esteem and Trust: Correlation Between Self-Esteem and Willingness to Trust in Undergraduate Students

Previous studies have shown a correlation between low self-esteem, loneliness, and social connectedness (McWhirter, 1997). These are factors that play a role in trust. Is there a specific correlation between trust and self-esteem? Connections have been made between the two, but there has been no specific research showing how this relationship is significant, though some studies indicate that it is (McWhirter, 1997). The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between self-esteem and willingness to trust in a small undergraduate college setting. The hypothesis was that there would be a significant correlation between self-esteem and willingness to trust. The participants were chosen randomly from all enrolled students at Huntington University. Surveys were distributed to these subjects by hand and through email. These participants, approximately 116 in total, were primarily Caucasian, and from middle-class socioeconomic backgrounds. The measures for this study were chosen from a number of previously published self-esteem and trust surveys. The results of the study supported the research hypothesis: a significant correlation was found between self-esteem and a person&rsquos willingness to trust.

Successful interpersonal relationships need a feeling of connectedness and trust. Previous studies have shown a correlation between low self-esteem, loneliness, and social connectedness and trust (McWhirter, 1997). As both trust and self-esteem are common factors in successful relationships, looking at these variables, we see that a number of studies have been done on trust and its different components as well as studies done on self-esteem. A number of studies have also been conducted that show connectedness between the two variables. The hypothesis of the current research is that different levels of self-esteem will affect the ability to trust others, and the willingness to trust.

Trust has been found to be subdivided into categories. Trust is defined as a person&rsquos willingness to share personal information with another person. Johnson-George and Swap (1982) studied the validity of the Specific Interpersonal Trust Scale (SITS). The study included 435 participants and required them to take a survey compiled by a board of researches. The trust factors that emerged the most from the SITS were those of general trust, emotional trust, reliability, dependability, and physical trust. The factors common to both men and women were those of emotional trust and reliability. Examining the depth of the correlation between trust and reliability and the aspects of emotional trust, they hypothesized that the reason that reliability seemed to play a bigger role was because reliability might be a preliminary trust factor within relationships whereas emotional trust might be a factor further removed in the development of relationships, showing that the rate of development of the relationship is a potential determining factor in the level of trust.

Trust is viewed in various ways, but most prominently divided into different categories of general trust (anyone) or interpersonal trust (close relationships). According to Couch, Adams, and Jones (1996) trust is primarily looked at as trust towards people in everyday situations, and trust involved with intentional relationships. Trusting people in general is perceived by past experiences with people in certain groups or a specific individual. This particular study contained a sample of 1,229 students that were split into seven different groups. The mean age of the sample was 19-23 years old with the majority of the participants being females. Trust is difficult to measure because of the various levels of trust that is displayed at different points in relationships, but is normally measured based on specific relationships this study was validated for the measure of relational trust. As hypothesized, people were able to trust those they were in a relationship. The study was not able to accurately measure the other type of trust, global trust.

Social relationships contain many components that revolve around trust. Frost, Stimpson, and Maughan (1978) studied power, control, affection, inclusion, self-esteem, and trust. Power was one of the main factors and has previously been defined as having direct impacts on social relationships. Power and trust were then hypothesized to be directly correlated. The participants were taken from Brigham Young University with a sample size of 59 undergraduate students. Seven groups were made with eight to ten students in each group, one group having six. Each group completed various surveys and questionnaires. To obtain validity, the questionnaires and surveys were completed at the end of the semester so that there was ample time to form relationships with the people in the group that involve power and trust, Frost, Stimpson, and Maughan results show that a person who is &ldquotrusted&rdquo is someone who is influential in social situations, has internal control, but also does not have the need to control others, giving those individuals a sense of respect. People who are trusted also have a higher sense of self-esteem and is not limited to his own influence, but is open to other&rsquos opinions as well.

Another component of trust is self-verification. Further, commitment is found to be related to self-verification. According to Burke and Stets (1999) commitment is a very important part of social life. The participants consisted of 286 couples out of a nonrandomized sample of 574 couples from Washington State. All couples were currently in their first three years of marriage. The mean ages of the participants were 24-26 years old, mostly. Surveys were administered as well as a few personal counseling sessions to gather qualitative data in addition to the quantitative data. Researchers discovered that trust is an important mechanism in the development of self-verification in which brings about commitment. It was also discovered that depression and distress reduces trust in a spouse and self-esteem and mastery increase trust (Burke & Stets, 1999).

Self-esteem is another component of interpersonal relationships that is vital social functioning. Self-esteem is defined as whether someone views themselves in a positive or negative way and displays confidence in their ability, credibility, value, and discernment. Self-esteem also reflects how that person thinks others view these qualities. McWhirter (1997) studied loneliness and its relation to self-esteem and learned resourcefulness, looking at the connection between self-esteem and interpersonal relationships. The research hypothesized a connection between loneliness and a lack of ability to maintain close and intimate relationships. Considering the factors of self-esteem and loneliness, it seems likely that this inability to maintain relationships is connected to self-esteem. This study, conducted through surveys to 625 college students, showed statistically significant correlations between self-esteem and the factors of global loneliness, intimate loneliness, and social loneliness. All of these correlations were negative, indicating that the lower the self-esteem, the higher the levels of loneliness, indicating a connection between self-esteem and the presence of interpersonal relationships.

Trust and self-esteem are vital to social functioning and social functioning has an impact on the mental health of all individuals. Research found by Williams, & Galliher (2006) display the relationship that social engagement and social functioning, as a whole, impact the individual&rsquos psychological well-being. Participants, in a non-randomized sample, included 272 undergraduate college students enrolled in introductory level psychology courses. The participants were mostly white females, between the ages of 18-21 and from primarily middle-class socioeconomic backgrounds. They were split into ten groups of 20 students and asked to complete surveys within a 30-40 minute time period. The research found strong correlations in social support, social competence, social connectedness, and psychological health. The main factor of social connectedness was a prominent predictor of depression and self-esteem. Self-esteem is an important part of social functioning which greatly impacts the psychological well-being of an individual. Williams and Galliher believe that their research regarding social skills and competence is very important for social and psychological well-being.

Correlations specifically between trust and self-esteem have also been researched as well. A study was conducted by Ellison and Firestone (1974), consisting of a 120 female college students, divided into high and low level self-esteem groups based on survey results were subjected to tapes of potential disclosure targets and then given surveys on their feelings concerning potential disclosure. The results showed that those with lower self-esteem expressed more feelings of trust to the high status, reflective style disclosure targets, indicating that the components are linked and that self-esteem plays a role in level of trust. The person must trust themselves in their judgment of who to trust but also accept themselves before they take on the prospect of asking another to. After administering four surveys and running data to process the correlations of the responses of the 101 participants, the results of Brown and Lindskold&rsquos study (1937) noted that the correlations between other trust and self-esteem and other trust and self-trust are significant in both males and females. It appeared, for females particularly, that the level of self-trust and other trust was affected by their level of self-esteem, showing a relationship between a person&rsquos willingness to trust and their self-esteem.

Self-esteem and trust have a very prominent relationship. Past research assures us that the connection does exist but fails to reveal its correlation (McWhirter, 1997). The purpose of the current study is to better understand this relationship lies within the depths of this correlation. People with lower self-esteem feel more trustworthy to the high status, reflective style, disclosure targets, indicating that self-esteem plays a role in trust (Ellison & Firestone, 1974). The relationship between self-esteem and trust is hypothesized to be a positive correlation meaning that with an increase in self-esteem, trust will also increase. Continued on Next Page »


Why are Positive Interactions in the Workplace So Important?

As with any interpersonal relationship, those formed in the workplace reflect a varying and dynamic spectrum of quality.

At their very best, interactions can be a source of enrichment and vitality that helps and encourages individuals, groups, and organizations as a whole to thrive and flourish.

Conversely, negative workplace interactions have the potential to be a source of psychological distress, depletion, and dysfunction.

Positive social interactions are often referred to as appetitive. They are characterized by the pursuit of rewarding and desirable outcomes, while negative ones are aversive and commonly characterized by unwelcome and punishing results (Reis & Gable, 2003).

Positive interactions in the workplace have been shown to improve job satisfaction and positively influence staff turnover as employees who experience support from colleagues are more likely to remain in an organization long term (Hodson, 2004 Moynihan and Pandey, 2008).

Furthermore, positive interactions between supportive co-workers who provide help and clarification of tasks can improve an individual’s understanding of their role, thus reducing job role ambiguity and workload, which, according to Chiaburu & Harrison (2008), may ultimately increase job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Positive interactions in the workplace are marked by trust, mutual regard, and active engagement. According to Rosales (2015), interactions characterized in this way can improve employee awareness of others, foster positive emotions such as empathy and compassion, and increase the likelihood of trusting, respectful engagement between individuals.

In contrast, negatively valenced ties between two individuals at work are characterized by animosity, exclusion, or avoidance, which can cause stress and job dissatisfaction (Rosales, 2015).

This can, unsurprisingly, have a detrimental effect upon an employee’s emotional wellbeing to the extent that social relations at work which are disrespectful, distrustful, and lack reciprocity are independent predictors of medically diagnosed depression (Oksanen et al., 2010).

Employees tend to be involved in many dyadic relationships within the workplace with individuals generally possessing both negative and positive ties. However, when individuals have more negative associations with co-workers than positive, they might experience negative moods, emotions, and other adverse outcomes such as social ostracism (Venkataramani & Dalal, 2007).

Mastroianni & Storberg-Walker (2014) indicated that well-being is enhanced through work interactions when those interactions are trusting, collaborative, and positive, and when employees feel valued and respected. Interactions lacking these characteristics were found to detract from well-being and negatively impacted sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy.

If we consider that, on average, individuals spend around 40 hours per week at work, it is imperative that employees feel connected and supported through positive social relationships. Seligman (2011) noted that happiness could not be achieved without social relationships, and while social relationships do not guarantee happiness, happiness does not often occur without them (Diener & Seligman, 2002).

Such connections and interactions give energy to individuals and to the organization in which they work, whereas negative relationships may deplete energy and lead to individual and corporate floundering (Ragins & Dutton, 2007).


Dr Mike Slade is a Reader in Mental Health Services Research at the Institute of Psychiatry, and a consultant clinical psychologist in rehabilitation with South London and Maudsley Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust. Mike's main research interests are recovery-focussed and outcome-focussed mental health services, user involvement in and influence on mental health services, staff-patient agreement on need, and contributing to the development of clinically useable outcome measures, including the Camberwell Assessment of Need and the Threshold Assessment Grid. He has written over 120 academic articles and seven books, including Slade M (2009) Personal recovery and mental illness, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. He is keen to disseminate an understanding of recovery to the field through free-to-download booklets, such as Shepherd G, Boardman J, Slade M (2008) Making Recovery a Reality, London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (downloadable from http://www.scmh.org.uk) and Slade M (2009) 100 ways to supportrecovery, London: Rethink (downloadable from http://www.rethink.org). He has acquired over ਷ m of grant funding, including a ਲ m NIHR Programme Grant for Applied Research for the five-year REFOCUS study to develop a recovery focus in adult mental services in England.

The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:


Virtuous Organizations

Amanda Horne is an executive coach and facilitator whose business theme is "Thriving People and Workplaces." She is an Authentic Happiness Coaching graduate and a founding member of Positive Workplace International. Full bio.

Editor’s Note: This is the second in a series articles about The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. The first was A Powerful Collection by Kirsten Cronlund.

In his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle defines virtuousness as excellence in the human soul. Is it possible to find excellence in the soul of an organization or business?

In Chapter 18 of The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship , Kim Cameron and Bradley Winn argue that virtuousness in organizations “is often manifest in collective displays of moral excellence. Virtuousness refers to aggregates of virtues acting in combination, which manifests itself as behaviors, processes and routines in organizational settings.”

Virtuousness is a form of behavior that leads to beneficial outcomes for humans and that is, in itself, “an ultimate good.”

“In sum, virtuousness in organizations refers to the process and practices that support and manifest the display of virtuous behavior. In virtuous organizations, employees collectively behave in ways that are consistent with the best of the human condition and the highest aspirations of human kind.”

Aggregates of Virtues & Research

Many virtues combine to form acts of virtuousness. We are all familiar with well-known virtues such as forgiveness, humility, wisdom, compassion, honesty, gratitude, hope, empathy, love, understanding, integrity, trust and optimism. Cameron and Winn noted that some research investigations used aggregate measures but that it is often individual virtues that are the subject of empirical research. Thus, the combination of virtues, in the form of virtuousness, has not been widely investigated. Virtuousness, a phenomenon comprising a combination of virtues working in combination, is more usually “associated with social conservatism and religious conservatism and often studied in the fields of theology and philosophy” rather than the subject of empirical research.

There are only a few studies about the relationship between virtuousness and enhanced organizational performance, which Cameron and Winn summarize and analyze in great detail in Chapter 18. Generally, the research has established that:

  1. In organizations experiencing downturns, there is a statistically significant relationship between a range of individual virtues and increased productivity, quality, employee commitment, and profit. The research indicates that virtuousness may act as a buffer against downsizing, helping organizations to perform well despite setbacks.
  2. Similarly, in financial organizations that incorporate virtuous practices into business culture to support the organizational strategy, virtuousness predicts favorable financial results.
  3. Even in the health care system, business units with higher measures of virtuousness over time outperformed business units that did not engage in improving measures of virtuousness.

Research definitely indicates that aggregate virtuousness has a statistically significant relationship with organizational success across a range of areas of business. However, there is still much to learn about this relationship.

Areas for Future Research

Cameron and Winn welcome and encourage deeper research to include areas such as:

  • Developing a standardized measure to assess virtuousness and its component elements
  • Analyzing which virtues are the most important
  • Exploring the possibility that virtues are not displayed in isolation from one another
  • Investigating whether clusters of virtues are the powerful contributing factor
  • Identifying if there can there be too much virtuousness
  • Discovering which activities are most helpful in increasing virtuousness
  • Researching the potential direct moderating effect of virtuousness on organizational outcomes

Positive Deviance and Virtuousness

At the Australian ‘Positive2012’ conference in March of this year, Kim Cameron explained in his keynote address that virtuousness is represented on the positive side of a “deviance continuum.” Virtuousness is a positive aberration from the norm whereas poor organizational performance is a negative aberration from the norm. Interested in Positive Deviance? Stay tuned…. Chapter 77 will be the topic of my next article.

Cameron, K., & Winn, B. (2011). Virtuousness in Organizations. In K. Cameron & G. Spreitzer, The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. Oxford University Press.

The following book is a story of organizational virtuousness:
Cameron, K. & Lavine, M. (2006). Making the Impossible Possible: Leading Extraordinary Performance: The Rocky Flats Story. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler. There’s an excerpt available online.

All quotes in this article are from the Chapter 18, “Virtuousness in Organizations.”

Aristotle courtesy of Nick in exsilio
compassion courtesy of Susan von Struensee
Business Meeting courtesy of thetaxhaven
His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama courtesy of abhikrama


Correlation Coefficients: Determining Correlation Strength

Correlation Coefficients: Determining Correlation Strength

Instead of drawing a scattergram a correlation can be expressed numerically as a coefficient, ranging from -1 to +1. When working with continuous variables, the correlation coefficient to use is Pearson’s r.

The correlation coefficient (r) indicates the extent to which the pairs of numbers for these two variables lie on a straight line. Values over zero indicate a positive correlation, while values under zero indicate a negative correlation.

A correlation of –1 indicates a perfect negative correlation, meaning that as one variable goes up, the other goes down. A correlation of +1 indicates a perfect positive correlation, meaning that as one variable goes up, the other goes up.

There is no rule for determining what size of correlation is considered strong, moderate or weak. The interpretation of the coefficient depends on the topic of study.

When studying things that are difficult to measure, we should expect the correlation coefficients to be lower (e.g. above 0.4 to be relatively strong). When we are studying things that are more easier to measure, such as socioeconomic status, we expect higher correlations (e.g. above 0.75 to be relatively strong).)

In these kinds of studies, we rarely see correlations above 0.6. For this kind of data, we generally consider correlations above 0.4 to be relatively strong correlations between 0.2 and 0.4 are moderate, and those below 0.2 are considered weak.

When we are studying things that are more easily countable, we expect higher correlations. For example, with demographic data, we we generally consider correlations above 0.75 to be relatively strong correlations between 0.45 and 0.75 are moderate, and those below 0.45 are considered weak.


The relationship between academic motivation and academic achievement students

: the purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between academic motivation and academic achievement among Tehran University students.

Method

In this cross-sectional correlation study, 252 Tehran University students were required to fill the academic motivation questionnaire. This 43-item questionnaire measured 8 aspects of motivation. Criterion for academic achievement was a mark which students themselves reported. Data were analyzed through using SPSS16 by means of Pearson Correlation coefficient.

Results

: Data analysis indicated positive and significant correlation between Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement. Furthermore subscales of task, effort, competition, social concern within eight subscales had a significant relationship with academic achievement.

Conclusion

: Regarding the results, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation.


Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long as There Isn't Too Much

It turns out that parents are right to nag: To succeed in school, kids should do their homework.

Duke University researchers have reviewed more than 60 research studies on homework between 1987 and 2003 and concluded that homework does have a positive effect on student achievement.

Harris Cooper, a professor of psychology, said the research synthesis that he led showed the positive correlation was much stronger for secondary students --- those in grades 7 through 12 --- than those in elementary school.

READ MORE:

Harris Cooper offers tips for teaching children in the next school year in this USA Today op-ed published Monday.

"With only rare exception, the relationship between the amount of homework students do and their achievement outcomes was found to be positive and statistically significant," the researchers report in a paper that appears in the spring 2006 edition of "Review of Educational Research."

Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement?

In an op-ed, Harris Cooper writes about avoiding assigning too much or too little homework to students.

Cooper is the lead author Jorgianne Civey Robinson, a Ph.D. student in psychology, and Erika Patall, a graduate student in psychology, are co-authors. The research was supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education.

While it's clear that homework is a critical part of the learning process, Cooper said the analysis also showed that too much homework can be counter-productive for students at all levels.

"Even for high school students, overloading them with homework is not associated with higher grades," Cooper said.

Cooper said the research is consistent with the "10-minute rule" suggesting the optimum amount of homework that teachers ought to assign. The "10-minute rule," Cooper said, is a commonly accepted practice in which teachers add 10 minutes of homework as students progress one grade. In other words, a fourth-grader would be assigned 40 minutes of homework a night, while a high school senior would be assigned about two hours. For upper high school students, after about two hours' worth, more homework was not associated with higher achievement.

The authors suggest a number of reasons why older students benefit more from homework than younger students. First, the authors note, younger children are less able than older children to tune out distractions in their environment. Younger children also have less effective study habits.

But the reason also could have to do with why elementary teachers assign homework. Perhaps it is used more often to help young students develop better time management and study skills, not to immediately affect their achievement in particular subject areas.

"Kids burn out," Cooper said. "The bottom line really is all kids should be doing homework, but the amount and type should vary according to their developmental level and home circumstances. Homework for young students should be short, lead to success without much struggle, occasionally involve parents and, when possible, use out-of-school activities that kids enjoy, such as their sports teams or high-interest reading."

Cooper pointed out that there are limitations to current research on homework. For instance, little research has been done to assess whether a student's race, socioeconomic status or ability level affects the importance of homework in his or her achievement.

This is Cooper's second synthesis of homework research. His first was published in 1989 and covered nearly 120 studies in the 20 years before 1987. Cooper's recent paper reconfirms many of the findings from the earlier study.

Cooper is the author of "The Battle over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents" (Corwin Press, 2001).


Correlation Coefficients: Determining Correlation Strength

Correlation Coefficients: Determining Correlation Strength

Instead of drawing a scattergram a correlation can be expressed numerically as a coefficient, ranging from -1 to +1. When working with continuous variables, the correlation coefficient to use is Pearson’s r.

The correlation coefficient (r) indicates the extent to which the pairs of numbers for these two variables lie on a straight line. Values over zero indicate a positive correlation, while values under zero indicate a negative correlation.

A correlation of –1 indicates a perfect negative correlation, meaning that as one variable goes up, the other goes down. A correlation of +1 indicates a perfect positive correlation, meaning that as one variable goes up, the other goes up.

There is no rule for determining what size of correlation is considered strong, moderate or weak. The interpretation of the coefficient depends on the topic of study.

When studying things that are difficult to measure, we should expect the correlation coefficients to be lower (e.g. above 0.4 to be relatively strong). When we are studying things that are more easier to measure, such as socioeconomic status, we expect higher correlations (e.g. above 0.75 to be relatively strong).)

In these kinds of studies, we rarely see correlations above 0.6. For this kind of data, we generally consider correlations above 0.4 to be relatively strong correlations between 0.2 and 0.4 are moderate, and those below 0.2 are considered weak.

When we are studying things that are more easily countable, we expect higher correlations. For example, with demographic data, we we generally consider correlations above 0.75 to be relatively strong correlations between 0.45 and 0.75 are moderate, and those below 0.45 are considered weak.


Definition of Positive Correlation in Psychology With Examples

Positive correlation can be defined as the direct relationship between two variables, i.e., when the value of one variable increases, the value of the other increases too. This post explains this concept in psychology, with the help of some examples.

Positive correlation can be defined as the direct relationship between two variables, i.e., when the value of one variable increases, the value of the other increases too. This post explains this concept in psychology, with the help of some examples.

“The consumption of ice cream (pints per person) and the number of murders in New York are positively correlated. That is, as the amount of ice cream sold per person increases, the number of murders increases. Strange but true!”
― Deborah J. Rumsey, Statistics For Dummies®

Psychology uses various methods for its research, and one of them is studying the correlation between any two variables. Correlation is nothing but the measure of degree of relation between two variables. It can be plotted graphically to show the relationship between them.

Correlation studies the relationship between two variables, and its coefficient can range from -1 to 1. A positively inclining relationship is nothing but positive correlation. Its value can range from 0 to 1. Positive correlation implies there is a positive relationship between the two variables, i.e., when the value of one variable increases, the value of other variable also increases, and the opposite happens when the value of one variable decreases. Correlation is used in many fields, such as mathematics, statistics, economics, psychology, etc.

Let’s take a hypothetical example, where a researcher is trying to study the relationship between two variables, namely ‘x’ and ‘y’. The example will help you understand what is positive correlation.

Let ‘x’ be the number of hours that a student has studied, and ‘y’ be his score in a test (maximum marks: 120). The researcher picks up 20 students from a class, and records the number of hours they studied for the test. The researcher then records the marks scored by the students in the test. We try to compare the relationship between the number of hours the student has devoted in studying, and his corresponding score.

x (Number of Hours) y (Score in Test)
4 47
2 23
3 31
5 55
6 66
5.5 65
8 82
3.5 48
10 94
9.5 80
8.5 80
6.7 62
8.9 84
2.5 38
4.7 35
3.3 43
5.2 51
10.1 101
7.6 84
9.3 70

► The given data is of two variables ‘x’ and ‘y’. There are 20 observations recorded by the researcher. We will plot these points on a graph.

► After plotting the points on the graph, we get a scatter diagram. The scatter diagram indicates the trend, and displays whether the correlation is positive or negative.

► An upward trend usually indicates a positive correlation, and on the other hand, a downward trend usually indicates a negative correlation. The degree of relation will however differ every time. Thus, the scatter diagram helps us visualize the correlation.

► In psychology, correlation can be helpful in studying behavioral patterns. For example, if you want to study whether those students who are depressed fail in their examinations or score poorly, you can plot your observations and study the association between them. If there is a positive association, it implies that depressed students are more prone to fail in their examinations.

Graphical Representation of Data: Scatter Diagram

What Do We Observe?

► After plotting the points on the graph, we can notice the upward/rising trend of the scatter diagram. This indicates that as the value of variable ‘x’ increases, the value of ‘y’ also increases. Thus, this indicates that the students who have put in more hours of study have scored better in the test.

► However, this survey method has its own limitations. This data is based on the statistics of 20 students in a class with different IQ levels. Though the trend here observed is positive, there are high chances that the IQ level of that student can play an important contributing factor too. The inference that more the hours you study, better the score, might hold true, if it is assumed that the IQ level of all the students is similar, on an average. However, there are other variables that cannot be ruled out, such as the level of concentration of the students, which can influence the scores.

Examples of Positive Correlation in Real Life

► If I walk more, I will burn more calories.
► With the growth of the company, the market value of company stocks increase.
► When demand increases, price of the product increases (at same supply level).
► When you study more, you score high in the exams.
► When you pay more to your employees, they’re motivated to perform better.
► With increase in consumption of junk food, there is increase in obesity.
► When you meditate more, your concentration level increases.
► Couples who spend more time together have a healthier and long-lasting relationship.

It must be noted that correlation does not imply causation. A direct relationship or positive relationship does not imply that they are the cause and effect of each other. A correlation between two variables aids the researcher in determining the association between them. However, statistical data is based on a sample, and hence, can sometimes lead to misleading results. A strong positive correlation does not imply there is necessarily a relationship between them it might be due to an unknown external variable. Hence, researchers have to be careful about the statistical data while drawing inferences.


The relationship between academic motivation and academic achievement students

: the purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between academic motivation and academic achievement among Tehran University students.

Method

In this cross-sectional correlation study, 252 Tehran University students were required to fill the academic motivation questionnaire. This 43-item questionnaire measured 8 aspects of motivation. Criterion for academic achievement was a mark which students themselves reported. Data were analyzed through using SPSS16 by means of Pearson Correlation coefficient.

Results

: Data analysis indicated positive and significant correlation between Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement. Furthermore subscales of task, effort, competition, social concern within eight subscales had a significant relationship with academic achievement.

Conclusion

: Regarding the results, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation.


Revealing complex relations between personality and fitness: HEXACO personality traits, life-time reproductive success and the age at first birth

We explored the relations between HEXACO personality traits and evolutionary fitness.

Low Honesty and Openness and high Emotionality predicted the number of children.

Low Openness and high Conscientiousness predicted the number of grandchildren.

Extraversion was negatively related to the age at first birth.

Findings suggest that HEXACO traits are likely under current natural selection.


Why are Positive Interactions in the Workplace So Important?

As with any interpersonal relationship, those formed in the workplace reflect a varying and dynamic spectrum of quality.

At their very best, interactions can be a source of enrichment and vitality that helps and encourages individuals, groups, and organizations as a whole to thrive and flourish.

Conversely, negative workplace interactions have the potential to be a source of psychological distress, depletion, and dysfunction.

Positive social interactions are often referred to as appetitive. They are characterized by the pursuit of rewarding and desirable outcomes, while negative ones are aversive and commonly characterized by unwelcome and punishing results (Reis & Gable, 2003).

Positive interactions in the workplace have been shown to improve job satisfaction and positively influence staff turnover as employees who experience support from colleagues are more likely to remain in an organization long term (Hodson, 2004 Moynihan and Pandey, 2008).

Furthermore, positive interactions between supportive co-workers who provide help and clarification of tasks can improve an individual’s understanding of their role, thus reducing job role ambiguity and workload, which, according to Chiaburu & Harrison (2008), may ultimately increase job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Positive interactions in the workplace are marked by trust, mutual regard, and active engagement. According to Rosales (2015), interactions characterized in this way can improve employee awareness of others, foster positive emotions such as empathy and compassion, and increase the likelihood of trusting, respectful engagement between individuals.

In contrast, negatively valenced ties between two individuals at work are characterized by animosity, exclusion, or avoidance, which can cause stress and job dissatisfaction (Rosales, 2015).

This can, unsurprisingly, have a detrimental effect upon an employee’s emotional wellbeing to the extent that social relations at work which are disrespectful, distrustful, and lack reciprocity are independent predictors of medically diagnosed depression (Oksanen et al., 2010).

Employees tend to be involved in many dyadic relationships within the workplace with individuals generally possessing both negative and positive ties. However, when individuals have more negative associations with co-workers than positive, they might experience negative moods, emotions, and other adverse outcomes such as social ostracism (Venkataramani & Dalal, 2007).

Mastroianni & Storberg-Walker (2014) indicated that well-being is enhanced through work interactions when those interactions are trusting, collaborative, and positive, and when employees feel valued and respected. Interactions lacking these characteristics were found to detract from well-being and negatively impacted sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy.

If we consider that, on average, individuals spend around 40 hours per week at work, it is imperative that employees feel connected and supported through positive social relationships. Seligman (2011) noted that happiness could not be achieved without social relationships, and while social relationships do not guarantee happiness, happiness does not often occur without them (Diener & Seligman, 2002).

Such connections and interactions give energy to individuals and to the organization in which they work, whereas negative relationships may deplete energy and lead to individual and corporate floundering (Ragins & Dutton, 2007).


Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long as There Isn't Too Much

It turns out that parents are right to nag: To succeed in school, kids should do their homework.

Duke University researchers have reviewed more than 60 research studies on homework between 1987 and 2003 and concluded that homework does have a positive effect on student achievement.

Harris Cooper, a professor of psychology, said the research synthesis that he led showed the positive correlation was much stronger for secondary students --- those in grades 7 through 12 --- than those in elementary school.

READ MORE:

Harris Cooper offers tips for teaching children in the next school year in this USA Today op-ed published Monday.

"With only rare exception, the relationship between the amount of homework students do and their achievement outcomes was found to be positive and statistically significant," the researchers report in a paper that appears in the spring 2006 edition of "Review of Educational Research."

Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement?

In an op-ed, Harris Cooper writes about avoiding assigning too much or too little homework to students.

Cooper is the lead author Jorgianne Civey Robinson, a Ph.D. student in psychology, and Erika Patall, a graduate student in psychology, are co-authors. The research was supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education.

While it's clear that homework is a critical part of the learning process, Cooper said the analysis also showed that too much homework can be counter-productive for students at all levels.

"Even for high school students, overloading them with homework is not associated with higher grades," Cooper said.

Cooper said the research is consistent with the "10-minute rule" suggesting the optimum amount of homework that teachers ought to assign. The "10-minute rule," Cooper said, is a commonly accepted practice in which teachers add 10 minutes of homework as students progress one grade. In other words, a fourth-grader would be assigned 40 minutes of homework a night, while a high school senior would be assigned about two hours. For upper high school students, after about two hours' worth, more homework was not associated with higher achievement.

The authors suggest a number of reasons why older students benefit more from homework than younger students. First, the authors note, younger children are less able than older children to tune out distractions in their environment. Younger children also have less effective study habits.

But the reason also could have to do with why elementary teachers assign homework. Perhaps it is used more often to help young students develop better time management and study skills, not to immediately affect their achievement in particular subject areas.

"Kids burn out," Cooper said. "The bottom line really is all kids should be doing homework, but the amount and type should vary according to their developmental level and home circumstances. Homework for young students should be short, lead to success without much struggle, occasionally involve parents and, when possible, use out-of-school activities that kids enjoy, such as their sports teams or high-interest reading."

Cooper pointed out that there are limitations to current research on homework. For instance, little research has been done to assess whether a student's race, socioeconomic status or ability level affects the importance of homework in his or her achievement.

This is Cooper's second synthesis of homework research. His first was published in 1989 and covered nearly 120 studies in the 20 years before 1987. Cooper's recent paper reconfirms many of the findings from the earlier study.

Cooper is the author of "The Battle over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents" (Corwin Press, 2001).


Self-Esteem and Trust: Correlation Between Self-Esteem and Willingness to Trust in Undergraduate Students

Previous studies have shown a correlation between low self-esteem, loneliness, and social connectedness (McWhirter, 1997). These are factors that play a role in trust. Is there a specific correlation between trust and self-esteem? Connections have been made between the two, but there has been no specific research showing how this relationship is significant, though some studies indicate that it is (McWhirter, 1997). The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between self-esteem and willingness to trust in a small undergraduate college setting. The hypothesis was that there would be a significant correlation between self-esteem and willingness to trust. The participants were chosen randomly from all enrolled students at Huntington University. Surveys were distributed to these subjects by hand and through email. These participants, approximately 116 in total, were primarily Caucasian, and from middle-class socioeconomic backgrounds. The measures for this study were chosen from a number of previously published self-esteem and trust surveys. The results of the study supported the research hypothesis: a significant correlation was found between self-esteem and a person&rsquos willingness to trust.

Successful interpersonal relationships need a feeling of connectedness and trust. Previous studies have shown a correlation between low self-esteem, loneliness, and social connectedness and trust (McWhirter, 1997). As both trust and self-esteem are common factors in successful relationships, looking at these variables, we see that a number of studies have been done on trust and its different components as well as studies done on self-esteem. A number of studies have also been conducted that show connectedness between the two variables. The hypothesis of the current research is that different levels of self-esteem will affect the ability to trust others, and the willingness to trust.

Trust has been found to be subdivided into categories. Trust is defined as a person&rsquos willingness to share personal information with another person. Johnson-George and Swap (1982) studied the validity of the Specific Interpersonal Trust Scale (SITS). The study included 435 participants and required them to take a survey compiled by a board of researches. The trust factors that emerged the most from the SITS were those of general trust, emotional trust, reliability, dependability, and physical trust. The factors common to both men and women were those of emotional trust and reliability. Examining the depth of the correlation between trust and reliability and the aspects of emotional trust, they hypothesized that the reason that reliability seemed to play a bigger role was because reliability might be a preliminary trust factor within relationships whereas emotional trust might be a factor further removed in the development of relationships, showing that the rate of development of the relationship is a potential determining factor in the level of trust.

Trust is viewed in various ways, but most prominently divided into different categories of general trust (anyone) or interpersonal trust (close relationships). According to Couch, Adams, and Jones (1996) trust is primarily looked at as trust towards people in everyday situations, and trust involved with intentional relationships. Trusting people in general is perceived by past experiences with people in certain groups or a specific individual. This particular study contained a sample of 1,229 students that were split into seven different groups. The mean age of the sample was 19-23 years old with the majority of the participants being females. Trust is difficult to measure because of the various levels of trust that is displayed at different points in relationships, but is normally measured based on specific relationships this study was validated for the measure of relational trust. As hypothesized, people were able to trust those they were in a relationship. The study was not able to accurately measure the other type of trust, global trust.

Social relationships contain many components that revolve around trust. Frost, Stimpson, and Maughan (1978) studied power, control, affection, inclusion, self-esteem, and trust. Power was one of the main factors and has previously been defined as having direct impacts on social relationships. Power and trust were then hypothesized to be directly correlated. The participants were taken from Brigham Young University with a sample size of 59 undergraduate students. Seven groups were made with eight to ten students in each group, one group having six. Each group completed various surveys and questionnaires. To obtain validity, the questionnaires and surveys were completed at the end of the semester so that there was ample time to form relationships with the people in the group that involve power and trust, Frost, Stimpson, and Maughan results show that a person who is &ldquotrusted&rdquo is someone who is influential in social situations, has internal control, but also does not have the need to control others, giving those individuals a sense of respect. People who are trusted also have a higher sense of self-esteem and is not limited to his own influence, but is open to other&rsquos opinions as well.

Another component of trust is self-verification. Further, commitment is found to be related to self-verification. According to Burke and Stets (1999) commitment is a very important part of social life. The participants consisted of 286 couples out of a nonrandomized sample of 574 couples from Washington State. All couples were currently in their first three years of marriage. The mean ages of the participants were 24-26 years old, mostly. Surveys were administered as well as a few personal counseling sessions to gather qualitative data in addition to the quantitative data. Researchers discovered that trust is an important mechanism in the development of self-verification in which brings about commitment. It was also discovered that depression and distress reduces trust in a spouse and self-esteem and mastery increase trust (Burke & Stets, 1999).

Self-esteem is another component of interpersonal relationships that is vital social functioning. Self-esteem is defined as whether someone views themselves in a positive or negative way and displays confidence in their ability, credibility, value, and discernment. Self-esteem also reflects how that person thinks others view these qualities. McWhirter (1997) studied loneliness and its relation to self-esteem and learned resourcefulness, looking at the connection between self-esteem and interpersonal relationships. The research hypothesized a connection between loneliness and a lack of ability to maintain close and intimate relationships. Considering the factors of self-esteem and loneliness, it seems likely that this inability to maintain relationships is connected to self-esteem. This study, conducted through surveys to 625 college students, showed statistically significant correlations between self-esteem and the factors of global loneliness, intimate loneliness, and social loneliness. All of these correlations were negative, indicating that the lower the self-esteem, the higher the levels of loneliness, indicating a connection between self-esteem and the presence of interpersonal relationships.

Trust and self-esteem are vital to social functioning and social functioning has an impact on the mental health of all individuals. Research found by Williams, & Galliher (2006) display the relationship that social engagement and social functioning, as a whole, impact the individual&rsquos psychological well-being. Participants, in a non-randomized sample, included 272 undergraduate college students enrolled in introductory level psychology courses. The participants were mostly white females, between the ages of 18-21 and from primarily middle-class socioeconomic backgrounds. They were split into ten groups of 20 students and asked to complete surveys within a 30-40 minute time period. The research found strong correlations in social support, social competence, social connectedness, and psychological health. The main factor of social connectedness was a prominent predictor of depression and self-esteem. Self-esteem is an important part of social functioning which greatly impacts the psychological well-being of an individual. Williams and Galliher believe that their research regarding social skills and competence is very important for social and psychological well-being.

Correlations specifically between trust and self-esteem have also been researched as well. A study was conducted by Ellison and Firestone (1974), consisting of a 120 female college students, divided into high and low level self-esteem groups based on survey results were subjected to tapes of potential disclosure targets and then given surveys on their feelings concerning potential disclosure. The results showed that those with lower self-esteem expressed more feelings of trust to the high status, reflective style disclosure targets, indicating that the components are linked and that self-esteem plays a role in level of trust. The person must trust themselves in their judgment of who to trust but also accept themselves before they take on the prospect of asking another to. After administering four surveys and running data to process the correlations of the responses of the 101 participants, the results of Brown and Lindskold&rsquos study (1937) noted that the correlations between other trust and self-esteem and other trust and self-trust are significant in both males and females. It appeared, for females particularly, that the level of self-trust and other trust was affected by their level of self-esteem, showing a relationship between a person&rsquos willingness to trust and their self-esteem.

Self-esteem and trust have a very prominent relationship. Past research assures us that the connection does exist but fails to reveal its correlation (McWhirter, 1997). The purpose of the current study is to better understand this relationship lies within the depths of this correlation. People with lower self-esteem feel more trustworthy to the high status, reflective style, disclosure targets, indicating that self-esteem plays a role in trust (Ellison & Firestone, 1974). The relationship between self-esteem and trust is hypothesized to be a positive correlation meaning that with an increase in self-esteem, trust will also increase. Continued on Next Page »


Dr Mike Slade is a Reader in Mental Health Services Research at the Institute of Psychiatry, and a consultant clinical psychologist in rehabilitation with South London and Maudsley Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust. Mike's main research interests are recovery-focussed and outcome-focussed mental health services, user involvement in and influence on mental health services, staff-patient agreement on need, and contributing to the development of clinically useable outcome measures, including the Camberwell Assessment of Need and the Threshold Assessment Grid. He has written over 120 academic articles and seven books, including Slade M (2009) Personal recovery and mental illness, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. He is keen to disseminate an understanding of recovery to the field through free-to-download booklets, such as Shepherd G, Boardman J, Slade M (2008) Making Recovery a Reality, London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (downloadable from http://www.scmh.org.uk) and Slade M (2009) 100 ways to supportrecovery, London: Rethink (downloadable from http://www.rethink.org). He has acquired over ਷ m of grant funding, including a ਲ m NIHR Programme Grant for Applied Research for the five-year REFOCUS study to develop a recovery focus in adult mental services in England.

The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:


Virtuous Organizations

Amanda Horne is an executive coach and facilitator whose business theme is "Thriving People and Workplaces." She is an Authentic Happiness Coaching graduate and a founding member of Positive Workplace International. Full bio.

Editor’s Note: This is the second in a series articles about The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. The first was A Powerful Collection by Kirsten Cronlund.

In his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle defines virtuousness as excellence in the human soul. Is it possible to find excellence in the soul of an organization or business?

In Chapter 18 of The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship , Kim Cameron and Bradley Winn argue that virtuousness in organizations “is often manifest in collective displays of moral excellence. Virtuousness refers to aggregates of virtues acting in combination, which manifests itself as behaviors, processes and routines in organizational settings.”

Virtuousness is a form of behavior that leads to beneficial outcomes for humans and that is, in itself, “an ultimate good.”

“In sum, virtuousness in organizations refers to the process and practices that support and manifest the display of virtuous behavior. In virtuous organizations, employees collectively behave in ways that are consistent with the best of the human condition and the highest aspirations of human kind.”

Aggregates of Virtues & Research

Many virtues combine to form acts of virtuousness. We are all familiar with well-known virtues such as forgiveness, humility, wisdom, compassion, honesty, gratitude, hope, empathy, love, understanding, integrity, trust and optimism. Cameron and Winn noted that some research investigations used aggregate measures but that it is often individual virtues that are the subject of empirical research. Thus, the combination of virtues, in the form of virtuousness, has not been widely investigated. Virtuousness, a phenomenon comprising a combination of virtues working in combination, is more usually “associated with social conservatism and religious conservatism and often studied in the fields of theology and philosophy” rather than the subject of empirical research.

There are only a few studies about the relationship between virtuousness and enhanced organizational performance, which Cameron and Winn summarize and analyze in great detail in Chapter 18. Generally, the research has established that:

  1. In organizations experiencing downturns, there is a statistically significant relationship between a range of individual virtues and increased productivity, quality, employee commitment, and profit. The research indicates that virtuousness may act as a buffer against downsizing, helping organizations to perform well despite setbacks.
  2. Similarly, in financial organizations that incorporate virtuous practices into business culture to support the organizational strategy, virtuousness predicts favorable financial results.
  3. Even in the health care system, business units with higher measures of virtuousness over time outperformed business units that did not engage in improving measures of virtuousness.

Research definitely indicates that aggregate virtuousness has a statistically significant relationship with organizational success across a range of areas of business. However, there is still much to learn about this relationship.

Areas for Future Research

Cameron and Winn welcome and encourage deeper research to include areas such as:

  • Developing a standardized measure to assess virtuousness and its component elements
  • Analyzing which virtues are the most important
  • Exploring the possibility that virtues are not displayed in isolation from one another
  • Investigating whether clusters of virtues are the powerful contributing factor
  • Identifying if there can there be too much virtuousness
  • Discovering which activities are most helpful in increasing virtuousness
  • Researching the potential direct moderating effect of virtuousness on organizational outcomes

Positive Deviance and Virtuousness

At the Australian ‘Positive2012’ conference in March of this year, Kim Cameron explained in his keynote address that virtuousness is represented on the positive side of a “deviance continuum.” Virtuousness is a positive aberration from the norm whereas poor organizational performance is a negative aberration from the norm. Interested in Positive Deviance? Stay tuned…. Chapter 77 will be the topic of my next article.

Cameron, K., & Winn, B. (2011). Virtuousness in Organizations. In K. Cameron & G. Spreitzer, The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. Oxford University Press.

The following book is a story of organizational virtuousness:
Cameron, K. & Lavine, M. (2006). Making the Impossible Possible: Leading Extraordinary Performance: The Rocky Flats Story. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler. There’s an excerpt available online.

All quotes in this article are from the Chapter 18, “Virtuousness in Organizations.”

Aristotle courtesy of Nick in exsilio
compassion courtesy of Susan von Struensee
Business Meeting courtesy of thetaxhaven
His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama courtesy of abhikrama


Watch the video: Θυρεοειδής και Ινομυαλγία Fibromyalgia -hashimotaki (May 2022).