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Can someone not feel i.e. neglect pain sensation?

Can someone not feel i.e. neglect pain sensation?


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Ronda Rousey (UFC Women's Bantamweight Champion) once said on a talk show (Conan) that she can take a punch and not feel pain, she added that she knows what pain is and she can just simply neglect them without feeling it

Can anyone without Analgesia, Hypoalgesia or any other syndrome can neglect the feeling of pain with any training?


Totally neglect pain? Probably not, but mediate pain sensation? Definetly!

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304395989902303

Results revealed that, in general, cognitive coping strategies are more effective in alleviating pain as compared to either no-treatment or expectancy controls. Each individual class of strategies significantly attenuates pain although the imagery methods are the most effective whereas pain acknowledging is the least effective.

Further reading:


7 Signs You Are Emotionally Numb

The official definition of the word Numb is, Deprived of the power of sensation without feeling.

The official definition of the word Empty is, Containing nothing not filled or occupied.

Of course, the word numb is used to describe a physical sensation, for example, My leg is numb from cold. And the word empty commonly applies to physical objects, such as, This basket is empty.

But these two words also have meanings far beyond the physical that are useful in understanding the human experience, happiness, and life satisfaction. They have an important link to peoples minds that goes to the epicenter of all three. It is this: both of these words describe feelings that are far more common than most people realize.

Most people dont give much attention to their feelings and would not think of using the words empty or numb to describe their own emotions. But as a psychologist, I have seen, without a doubt, that countless people who seem absolutely fine on the outside walk through their lives feeling either empty or numb, or both, on the inside.

Why People Feel Numb

Childhood Emotional Neglect (CEN): Happens when your parents are not aware enough of your feelings and emotional needs as they raise you.

Imagine a child growing up in a family with his feelings essentially ignored. Imagine how that childs feelings would be, over time, virtually neutralized by the day-to-day lack of emotional validation and lack of adult response.

That process, usually not always unintentional on the part of the parents, is the crux of Childhood Emotional Neglect and the reason why so many people, who are otherwise just fine, are walking through their lives feeling periodically empty or numb. Its also why I wrote the book Running On Empty: Overcome Your Childhood Emotional Neglect way back in 2012.

In Running On Empty: Overcome Your Childhood Emotional Neglect, my goal was to make people aware of Childhood Emotional Neglect, the reason its so invisible and unmemorable when it happens to you, and how it affects you throughout your whole life.

Here is an excerpt from that book (slightly edited for clarity):

Few people come to therapy because they feel empty, or numb, inside. Its not a disorder in and of itself like anxiety or depression. Nor is it experienced by most people as a symptom that interferes with their lives. Its more a general feeling of discomfort, a lack of being filled up that may come and go.

Some people experience it physically, as an empty space in their belly or chest. Others experience it more as emotional numbness. You may have a general sense that youre missing something that everybody else has, or that youre on the outside looking in. Something just isnt right, but its hard to name. It makes you feel somehow set apart, disconnected as if youre not enjoying life as you should.

I have found that most emotionally neglected people who come to therapy for anxiety, depression, or family-related problems, for example, eventually express these empty feelings in some way.

Typically the emptiness is chronic and has ebbed and flowed over the course of their lives. It may be difficult to imagine what would make a person feel this way. The answer lies in the lack of emotional responses from parents during childhood.

Here I would like to remind you that human beings are designed to feel emotion. When that design is short-circuited, first by emotionally neglectful parents and later continued by the child himself as an adult, it throws off the whole system.

Imagine ice-cream made without sugar or a computer program in which some of the most basic commands have been removed. Such is the malfunction of the human psyche when emotions are pushed out of it.

In many ways, emptiness or numbness is worse than pain. Many people have told me that they would far prefer feeling anything to nothing. It is very difficult to acknowledge, make sense of, or put into words something that is absent. If you do succeed in putting emptiness into words to try to explain it to another person, its very difficult for others to understand it.

Numbness seems like nothing to most people. And nothing is nothing, neither bad nor good. But in the case of a human beings internal functioning, nothing is definitely something. Emptiness or numbness is actually a feeling in and of itself. And I have discovered that it is a feeling that can be very intense and powerful. In fact, it has the power to drive people to do extreme things to escape.

7 Signs That You are Emotionally Numb

  1. At times, you feel experience a physical sensation, especially in your belly, chest or throat (but can be anywhere in your body, of emptiness.
  2. You sometimes watch yourself going through the motions in a situation, perhaps even when you know you should be feeling happy, sad, connected or angry. Yet you feel nothing.
  3. You frequently question the meaning or purpose of your life.
  4. You have suicidal thoughts that seem to come out of nowhere.
  5. You are a thrill-seeker. Thrill-seeking is often an attempt to feel something.
  6. You feel mystifyingly different from other people. The lack of connection to your feelings does set you apart. You may feel like other people are living a more vivid life than you are.
  7. You often feel like youre on the outside looking in. Your emotions should be connecting you to others, and instead, they are holding you separate.

You feel numb or empty for a reason, and you are not alone. Other people feel this way too. But most people do not . It is not how you are meant to be.

Those feelings of numbness are a message from your body. Your body is crying out to you to notice something is wrong here. There is an empty place where your feelings should be.

Great News

What have you been feeling as you read this post? Overwhelmed? Anxious? Sad? Curious? Hopeless? Or perhaps nothing at all?

Whatever you feel, it is OK. And I want to assure you that there are answers. You do not need to go through the motions anymore.

Childhood Emotional Neglect (CEN) is very treatable. It is not an illness or disease its simply something that did not happen for you as a child. And you can make it happen now.

CEN is difficult to see or remember so it can be hard to know if you have it. To find out, Take The Emotional Neglect Questionnaire. Its free and you can find the link below.

To learn much more and get started on your journey, see the book Running On Empty: Overcome Your Childhood Emotional Neglect(link below).

It is never too late to heal. You can do it. Follow the steps of CEN recovery and you will be running on empty no more.


Sensations: Nature, Attribute and Types (With Diagram)

A sensation is the simplest form of cognition. It is a simple impression produced in the mind by a stimulus. The stimulus acts upon a sense-organ or the peripheral extremity of a sensory nerve the impression is conducted by the sensory nerve to a sensory centre in the brain then it is experienced as a sensation.

This is the case with sensations of colours, sounds, tastes, smells, heat, cold etc. Stimuli are either external to the organism or within the organism.

They are either extra-organic or intra-organic. Organic sensations of hunger, thirst, fatigue, headache, etc., are produced by changed conditions of the organism. They have no special sense-organs. Sen­sations are simple impressions of some qualities.

But their meanings are not known. As soon as their meanings are interpreted, they become perception. A baby just born will have pure sensations. But adults can never have absolutely pure sensations.

They interpret the meanings of sensations and know them to be sensations of qualities (e.g., sounds) of certain objects (e.g., bells) occupying definite portions of space in the external world. But a newborn baby is incapable of interpreting the meanings of sensations.

Thus pure sensations have a hypothetical existence. Sensations are the elementary raw material of our knowledge of the external world. We believe in their existence in order to account for perceptions.

Sensations are simple impressions of sensory qualities. Percep­tion is the awareness of objects in the environment. The seeing of light is called a visual sensation. But the seeing of an object is called visual perception.

The smelling of an odorous substance is called an olfactory perception. The bare awareness of a sensory quality, e.g., colour, sound, odour, taste, or temperature is a sensation. But the experience of an object in the environment together with sensory qualities is called perception.

Sensations are the integral elements in acts of perception. They are not experienced alone in normal adult experience. But we can investigate them by examining the components of our perceptions of different kinds of objects. Sensations are the most elementary processes of cognition. We shall examine their attributes as psychical processes apart from their meanings as vehicles of knowledge.

A sensation is caused by a stimulus. A stimulus is a relatively simple factor in the environment acting upon a receptor or sense-organ. It is external to the organism. A ray of light acts upon the eye and produces the sensation of colour. A stimulus is a simple condition or factor in the physical world. It is different from a situation, which is a complex group of stimuli.

A design or pattern is a situation. We perceive it as a whole unit. It is a complex whole or a pattern of stimuli. It is an object of perception. It is not experienced by sensation. A stimulus produces a sensation. A situation is apprehended by perception.

Different kinds of stimuli produce different kinds of sensations. Rays of light of different wave-lengths produce different kinds of colour sensations. Sound waves differing in amplitude, length, and composition produce different kinds of sound sensations.

Solutions which contain particles of matter of such size that taste bud are stimulated produce sensation or taste. Gaseous particles given off by odorous substances that affect the membrane of the nose produce sensations of smell.

Solid objects which affect the skin and mucous membrane produce cutaneous sensations of pressure. Radiant stimuli produce temperature sensations. Noxious stimuli, such as cutting, pricking and those injuring tissue produce pain sensations. These are the stimuli external to the organism. They are extra- organic stimuli acting upon the receptors or sense-organs and the sensory neurons.

There are stimuli within the organism also. They consist in physiological changes originating in the organism itself. They are intra-organic stimuli. Muscular contractions in the walls of the stomach produce sensation of hunger. Dryness of the palate produces sensation of thirst.

Movements of muscles produce motor sensations. Physiological conditions produce organic and motor sensations. Thus different kinds of sensations are produced by different kinds of stimuli.

Stimulus and Response:

The behaviourist regards psychology as a science of behaviour. Behaviour is a response to a stimulus.

It is represented by the formula:

The organism responds to stimulus. So the phenomenon is expressed by the formula:-—

Here S stands for the stimulus O stands for the organism R stands for the response. The stimuli come from the environment, and act upon the organism which reacts upon them its responses effect changes in the environment.

So the formula may be expanded into the following:

The individual receives sensations from the stimuli in the environment, which act upon the receptors or sense-organs. He responds to them through the effectors or muscles and glands. He makes muscular movements and glandular reactions in response to the stimulation of the sense-organs.

He has central neurons in the spinal cord and the brain connecting receptors and effectors. Muscles and glands are responsive organs.

These are two kinds of muscles, striped and unstriped. The striped muscles are under the control of the will. They move the arms, legs, trunk, tongue, and larynx. The unstriped muscles are not subject to the control of the will.

They control the blood-vessels, intestines, the organs of elimination and reproduction. Hence by response we mean “the total striped and unstriped muscular and glandular change which follows upon a given stimulus” (Watson).

Responses may be simple or complex. Behaviour consists in simple responses of the organism to stimuli in the environment, such as simple reflexes, or in a complex reaction patterns or systems of responses, such as instinctive actions.

Attributes of Sensations:

There are certain general distinguishable characters of sensa­tions. They are sometimes called attributes of sensations. Sensations have quality, intensity, duration (protensity) extensity (volume or voluminousness) and local sign (local character).

(i) Quality:

Sensations differ in quality. Sensation of colours, sounds, tastes, smells heat and cold differ from one another in quality. There is generic difference among them. They are sensa­tions of different kinds. They have different sense-organs. They are produced by different kinds of stimuli. Sensations of colours are produced by the action of light waves on the retina of the eye-ball.

Sensations of sounds are produced by the action of air waves on the auditory organ. Red, green, blue, yellow, etc., differ from one another within the same genus of colour. There is a specific difference among them. Red differs from blue specifically, and from heat and cold generically. In the generic difference of sensations, there are different kinds of sense-organs, and different kinds of sensory of different nerves.

(ii) Muller’s Theory of Specific Energy of Nerves:

What is the cause of the generic and specific difference of sensations? There are different kinds of stimuli, different sense-organs, and different sensory nerves for different kinds of sensations, visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and cutaneous.

Air waves act upon the audi­tory organ, and produce nerve currents, which are conducted by the auditory nerve to the auditory area in the brain. Light waves act upon the visual organ, and produce nerve currents which are conducted by the optic nerve to the visual area of the brain.

Similarly, other kinds of stimuli act upon other sense-organs, and produce nerve currents which are conducted by other sense-organs, and produce nerve currents which are conducted by other kinds of sensory nerves to the other sensory areas of the brain.

The optic nerve however stimulated, by a light wave, an electric current, or a mechanical blow, invariably produces a sensation of light or colour. It carries one specific kind of energy, viz., light-energy. Similarly, an auditory nerve carries sound-energy and so on.

The different kinds of nerves conduct specific kinds of energy to the brain. This is called the theory of specific energy of nerves formulated by Johannes Muller. There are special nerve-fibres even for special kinds of sensations belonging to the same genus, viz., blue, yellow, red, green etc., which carry specific energies to the brain.

Hence the generic and specific differences of sensations are explained by specific energies conducted by different kinds of energy nerves.

(iii) Intensity:

Sensations of the same quality may differ in intensity. A light may be dim or bright, a sound faint or loud, a smell mild or strong, a taste weak or strong, a pressure light or heavy. A dim light produces a faint sensation of light.

A bright light produces an intense sensation of light. All sensations differ in intensity lights, sounds, tastes, smells, temperatures, pains, pressures, hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc., all vary from very weak to very intense. The other conditions remaining the same, greater intensities of stimuli produce greater intensities of sensations.

(iv) Duration of Protensity:

Every sensation has a sensible duration. A sensation may linger in the mind for a certain duration. A sound sensation may last for a shorter or longer duration. The sound which lasts five seconds feels differently when it ceases from a sound which lasts twenty seconds. This is a difference in duration. Duration is also called potensity or protensive magnitude. Sensations alike in quality and intensity may differ in duration.

(v) Extensity:

Visual and tactual sensation have extensity. This is admitted by all psychologists. Look at the moon and then at a star. You have two visual sensations. The first visual sensation has greater extensity than the second. Touch a book with a finger-tip, and then with your palm.

You have two tactual sensations. The first tactual sensation has greater extensity than the second. Extensity is the attribute of a sensation which is due to the area of the sensitive surface which is stimulated by a stimulus. Extensity is different from intensity. Put a coin on your skin.

Then put another coin beside it. The second tactual sensation will gain in extensity. But put the second coin upon the first coin on your skin. Your tactual sensation will gain in intensity. Extensity is different from extension. Extensity is an attribute of sensations. Extension is an attribute of material bodies. Extension of a material body remains the same but as we recede from it farther, it appears to be smaller.

Here the extensity of the visual sensations changes, while the extension of the body remains the same. Extension of a body can be measured in inches, feet, etc. But extensity of a sensation cannot be measured in this way. The perception of extension develops out of extensity of visual and tactual sensations. Extensity is also called ‘extensiveness’, ‘voluminousness’, ‘diffusion’, or ‘spreadoutness’.

William James holds that other kinds of sensations also have extensity. The sensation of the loud report of a thunder has greater extensity than the squeaking of a slate pencil. The taste of the solution of quinine in which the tongue is dipped has greater exten­sity than the taste of a bit of sugar on the tip of the tongue.

The smell of a bunch of roses has greater extensity than that of a single rose. The pain of cramp all over the body has greater extensity than that of a headache. Thus all kinds of sensations have extensity. William James tries to develop the perception of space out of the extensity of sensations. This view is rejected by others.

(vi) Local Sign:

If a person touches your cheek, forehead, and nose successively with the same pencil point with the same degree of pressure, your tactual sensations will differ from one another in local signs. They will not differ in quality or intensity.

Local sign is a peculiar attribute which distinguishes a sensation of one part of an extended sense-organs, e. g, skin or retina, from an otherwise identical sensation of another part. It is due to the particular locality of the sense-organs stimulated, while extensity is due to the extent or area of the sensitive surface stimulated.

Local sign is also called local signature or local colouring. Lotze discovered local signs of sensations. Perception of extension partly develops out of extensity and local signs of visual and tactual sensations.

Extensity has two peculiarities:

(a) A sensation having extensity is made up of a number of simultaneous sensations having different local signs.

(b) The constituent sensations form a continuous whole.

Quality, intensity, duration extensity and local sign are unique and irreducible attributes of sensations.

Stimuli of various intensities act upon our sense-organs. But we cannot be conscious of all of them. Stimuli of very low degrees of intensity cannot produce sensations. Similar is the case with stimuli of very high degrees of intensity.

A very faint sound, a very faint light, a very faint odour, may fail altogether to produce a sensation. The point at which a stimulus becomes intense enough to produce sensation is called the limen or the threshold.

The least intense stimulus which produces a sensation marks the absolute threshold. Five to seven quanta of light energy produce a visual sensation on the retina. A quantum is the smallest quantity of light energy found in nature. Differential threshold is shown by the smallest change in a stimulus which is appreciated. As the stimuli become more and more intense, they produce more and more intense sensations.

When the stimuli become very intense, they cease to be felt altogether, and we feel pain. A very dazzling light causes acute pain. A deafening sound, scorching heat, and biting cold are painful. The point at which the various stimuli cause pain is known as the upper limit of sensation. The interval between the limen or threshold and the upper limit or the height of sensibility is called the range of sensibility.

The German Physiologist, Weber, formulated a law. Between the upper limit and the lower limit or threshold, the greater is the intensity of the stimulus, the greater is the intensity of the cor­responding sensation. But every increase of stimulus above a certain amount does not produce an increase of sensation.

The increase of stimulus may be too small to be noticed. It is too small to produce an appreciable sensation. For example, we may increase a weight a little, but the increase is so small that we are unable to perceive it. The stimulus must be increased by a certain amount if the increase is to be noticed. This gives the difference threshold or least noticeable difference.

The intensity of the stimulus must be increased by a constant fraction of it in order to produce an appreciable difference in the intensity of the sensation. The addition to the intensity of the stimulus must be a definite fraction of the original stimulus. In the case of pressure, the stimulus must be increased by 1/20 in order to produce a change in the pressure sensation.

When we put a weight of 20 grams upon the hand, we must add one whole gram so that we may observe a change in the pressure sensation. If we place 100 grams upon the hand, we must add 5 grams before we can observe any change in intensity.

In the case of sounds, the stimulus must be increased by 1/3 in the case of brightness, the stimulus must be increased by 1 /100. The stimulus must be increased by a constant fraction so that we may observe any change in intensity.

Fechner formulated the law as follows: “To increase the intensity of a sensation in arithmetical progression, the stimulus must be increased in geometrical progression.” “The sensation increases as the logarithm of the stimulus”. This is known as Weber-Fechner Law.

It means that the stimulus must be multiplied by a constant fraction, in order that the corresponding sensation may increase by the addition of a fixed unit.

Suppose, x to be the liminal intensity of a sound sensation, 9 to be the intensity of the stimulus (air vibration), 1 to be the least discernible increase of sensation, and 4/3 to be the constant fraction by which the stimulus has to be multi­plied in order to increase x by 1.

Then in order to produce the intensities of the sensation x + 1, x + 2, x + 3, and so on, the inten­sities of the stimulus must respectively be 12(=9 x4/3), 15 (=12 X 4/3), 21 1/3 (=16 X 4/5), and so on. The constant fraction is called the quotient of sensibility.

But the Weber-Fechner law is approximately true within certain limits. First, the law has not been verified in the case of taste and smell sensations. The results are uncertain in the case of temperature.

The law has been approximately verified in the case of hearing, sight, pressure, and the muscular sense. Secondly, the law holds true most accurately in the medium ranges of intensity. The results are quite uncertain towards the upper and lower limits.

The sensation increases more rapidly towards the lower limit, and less rapidly towards the upper limit than is demanded by the law. Thirdly, the law tacity assumes that the sensation increases by a fixed unit. But this is not true.

The addition of 1 gram to 20 gram may not be felt in the same way as the addition of 1 seer to 20 seers. Lastly, James and Munsterberg point out that a strong sensation is not a compound of many weak sensations, but an entirely new sensation in quality.

The Weber-Fechner Law has been explained physiologically, as due to the nature of nervous action. As a sensory nerve is sti­mulated by a stimulus it gradually becomes less sensitive. So a stronger stimulus is required to produce an appreciable effect in the cortical centre belonging to that sense.

The Law has also been explained psychologically. Wundt explains it by the general psycho­logical law of relativity, according to which the conscious effect of a mental state depends upon previous mental states. Thus the law is interpreted in terms of physiological and psychological laws.

Types of Sensations:

Sensations are of three kinds:

(3) Motor or kinaesthetic sensations.

Hunger, thirst, etc., are organic sensations. Sensations of colours, sounds, tastes, smells, pressures, heat, cold, etc., are special sensations. Sensations of movement are motor sensations. Organic sensations are produced by the conditions of the internal organs of the body.

Special sensations are produced by the stimulation of the special sense-organs, viz., the eye, the ear, the tongue, the nose and the skin by special kinds of stimuli. Motor sensations are produced by changes in the organs of movement, viz., muscles, tendons and joints.

(i) Organic Sensations:

Some organic sensations are not localizable. They are vital feelings, e.g., sensations of comfort or discomfort. They are produced by the general condition of the organism as a whole. These sensations mingle into one total sensation called common sensibility or the coenaesthesia.

The sensations of comfort, discomfort, physical well-being and uneasiness cannot be localized. Some organic Sensations are vaguely localizable. Headache, hunger, thirst, etc., are vaguely localized. Headache can be localized in the head. Some organic sensations are definitely localizable, e.g., cuts, burns, sores, bruises, etc., in the injured tissue.

Organic sensations have the following characteristics. They have no special sense-organs. They are not produced by external stimuli. They are produced by changes in the internal organs of the organism. They are due to the physiological conditions of the various visceral organs, e.g., stomach, intestines, internal sex mechanisms, and kidney. The throat, lungs, and heart are non-visceral structures.

Activities of the visceral organs excite sensory nerves, which send nerve impulse to the central nervous system. Hunger is an organic sensation produced by the rubbing together of the stomach walls when it begins its churning movements. Thirst is a sensation produced by the dryness of the membrane in the back of the throat. Organic sensations have little knowledge giving value.

They do not inform us anything of the external world. They are called the ‘barometer of our life process’, because they inform us of the sound or unsound conditions of the body. They have a tendency to blend into one another, and fuse into a mass. They are not so clearly distinguishable from one another as special sensations such as colours, sounds, etc., are.

They cannot be easily revived. It is very difficult to remember the sensations of hunger and thirst. But special sensations can be easily remembered. They are not capable of definite localization in most cases. They have a high degree of emotive value. They are important conditions of our happi­ness and misery. Sensations of comfort and discomfort, physical well-being and uneasiness deeply affect our happiness and misery.

(ii) Special Sensations:

Sensations of colours, sounds, tastes, smells, temperature, pressure, etc., are special sensations. They have special sense-organs, e. g, the eye, the ear, the tongue, the nose, and the skin. They are produced by special kinds of external stimuli, e.g., light waves, air waves, etc.

They are clearly distinguishable from one another. They are capable of localization. They can be referred to definite points of space on the body or in the external world. They have great cognitive value.

They give us knowledge of the qualities of external objects. Sensations of colours, sounds, tastes, smells, heat, cold and pressure reveal to us the sensible qualities of external objects. They are the raw material of our knowledge of the external world.

They admit of a greater variety of kinds and degrees than organic and motor sensations. There are various kinds of visual, auditory, cutaneous, olfactory and gustatory sensations.

(iii) Kinaesthetic Sense: Kinaesthetic or Motor Sensations:

The Receptor and Stimulus:

The Kinaesthetic sense reports movements of the muscles, tendons and joints. It is not simply the muscular sense, but also the tendinous sense and the joint sense. The nerve endings which lie in the muscles, tendons, and joints are sensitive to being pulled and pushed about with muscle contraction and joint movement yielding sensations of strains, weight, and bodily position and movement.

The kinaesthetic sense means the sensation of movement. It is not simply the muscle sense. It is the muscle, tendon and joint or articular sense.

The muscle sensations, the tendon sensations, and the joint and articular sensations can be distinguished from one another in the kinaesthetic sensations. The muscle sensations are of the nature of diffuse pressure of dull pain. The tendon sensations are of the nature of strain or effort.

The joint sensations are of the nature of massive pressure. In certain nerve afflictions joint sensibility is retained, but muscle and tendon sensations as well as cutaneous sensations are abolished. In such cases posture and movement sensations are experienced.

This shows that the joints play a major role in kinaesthetic sensations. Tendinous sensations give us sensations of effort, strain, exertion, for example, when a heavy weight is supported.

The motor neurons end in the muscles. Energy comes from the central motor neurons and moves the muscles. The movement of the muscles is reported to the brain by the sensory neurons. Each muscle has the power of contraction and may thus become shorter and thicker.

As its ends are attached to bones, one bone is brought close to one another, and a movement of a limb is produced. In normal reaction the muscles is contracted by a nerve current passing to it through its motor nerve. The muscle itself, however, is irritable.

When it is separated from its nerve supply, it can be made to contract by a stimulus applied directly to it. It can be aroused by a blow, by a sudden change in temperature, by chemical stimuli, and by electrical stimuli.

Motor sensations are produced by the strain in the muscles, tendons and joints. The conditions are reported to the brain by sensory or afferent nerves which have their endings in the muscles, tendons and joints. In motor sensations there is also the compression of the skin. There is a sometimes pure tactual sensation of contact.

They are often accompanied by organic sensations, e.g., increased circulation of blood, quick breathing, heat, perspiration, fatigue, etc. Sensations of muscles, tendons, and joints contribute important factors to motor sensations.

The sensations of the compression of the skin, contact with external objects, and organic sensations of fatigue, etc., accompany motor sensations. Sensations of muscles also contribute to the perception of varying position, movement, and tension.

If you stretch out your arms, shut your eyes, and slowly bend your elbow-joint, and attend to the manner in which you are aware of the direction, velocity, and duration of the movement, you will realize the nature of kinaesthetic sensations.

When your hand is moved by some other person, your eyes, being shut, you feel kinaesthetic or motor sensations. When we speak of motor sensa­tions, we refer to the sensations localized in the muscles, tendons, and joints. The afferent nerves which have their endings in the tendons produce sensations of strain in different degrees.

No Sense of Effort or Innervation sense—Is there any sense of effort or innervation-sense? According to Bain, there is a sense of effort or innervation-sense produced by the discharge of energy from centres in the brain to the muscles.

It is a peculiar sensation of motor discharge. William James denies its existence. Motor sensa­tions are, according to him, sensations of muscles, tendons and joints. There is no sensation of putting forth energy or excitement of the motor neurons.

This theory is strengthened by Sach’s discovery of the sensory nerves passing from the inside of the muscles to the higher centres. Bain’s theory of the ‘innervation-sense’ is positively disproved by recent experiments. When the motor areas of the cortex are directly stimulated by an electric current they do not produce motor sensations.

But when the areas immediately behind them, which receive sensory nerves from the skin and muscles, are stimulated in this, way, they produce motor sensations. The so-called sense of innervation is a needless hypothesis, because it cannot explain anything which cannot be explained without it.

It is not required to explain volition, since volition is not a sensation. It is not necessary to account for the attempt to make a movement. Our sensations of movement come by way of sensory nerves, and are like other sensations in this respect. But we have direct knowledge of our own activity as a mental process, apart from incoming sensations. We have consciousness of mental activity.

There are three kinds of motor sensations, e.g., those of posi­tion, free movement, and impeded movement. When you keep your arm outstretched without moving it, you have a sensation of position. When you move your arm to and fro in empty space, you have a sensation of free movement. When you lift a weight, you have a sensation of impeded movement.

Motor sensations have a high cognitive value. They give us knowledge of the fundamental properties of matter, e.g., extension, impenetrability, position, distance, direction and weights of things. Muscle sensations from the eye are of great help to us in the judgement of the distance, size, and shape of objects seen.

Motor sensations have also a great affective value. Muscular exercise is a source of pleasure and pain. Pleasure of health depends, to a large extent, on the state of the muscles. Thus motor sensations have cognitive and affective value.

Static Sense: Sense of Equilibrium:

The semi-circular canals in the internal ear are the sense-organ for the sensation of balance or equilibrium. Fine nerve-endings in the semi-circular canals constituted by tiny tubes of Bone and membrane arranged in three planes from the receptors.

The static sense or the sense of balance works with the kinaesthetic sense in maintaining posture. Giddiness results from the unwanted disturbance of the liquid in the semi-circular canals. Static sensations, in co-operation with kinaesthetic sensations, make possible the control over posture balance, and the force exerted by the body.

(i) Taste:

(a) Receptor and Stimulus:

Taste is a chemical sense. Tiny nubs, papilla, or prominences on the surface of the tongue contain taste buds or taste bulbs in which hair cells connect with the ends of a sensory nerve. Taste buds are branches of sense cells. They are not located on the surface of the tongue. They art placed in little pits which extend down the surface.

A chemical substance in liquid forms or soluble in the saliva of the mouth is the stimulus. It must be liquid or soluble in order to affect the ends of the hair cells and be tasted. There is a chemical action between the sense-organ and the stimulus. It is conducted to the brain by the gustatory nerve.

Sweet, sour, salt and bitter are the four primary tastes. Wundt added metallic and alkaline tastes also. But the metallic taste is a combination of taste with smell and muscular sensations. Strong alkalies may make the tongue slip­pery and may also produce puckering of the surface of the tongue.

The metallic and alkaline tastes are not recognized as primary tastes now. The four primary tastes, sweet, sour, salt, and bitter cannot be reduced to any other simpler tastes. The tip of the tongue is more sensitive to sweet, its back to bitter, and its sides to sour, but it is equally sensitive to salt over its whole surface.

Generally, the tastes of many things we taste are compound tastes. They are reducible to primary tastes. Lemonade produces the tastes of sweet and sour. Grape-fruit yields a combination of sweet, sour and bitter. Chocolate, ice-cream, and most other foods yield combination of many tastes. The total number of compound tastes produced by different things is enormous.

There are blends of tastes with other types of sensory qualities. Tastes are mixed with smell in flavours. Juices extracted from onions and potatoes taste almost alike when their odours are excluded by closing the upper nasal passage by a plug.

Tastes are mixed with organic sensations of the alimentary canal, e.g., in relish and disrelish. Tastes are mixed with touch in tastes of hot and cold. Cold Coffee is different from hot not on account of taste, but because of smell, coldness and heat.

Charged water tastes the same as uncharged, but the former stimulates pressure sense-organs, while the latter does not. Fiery tastes like pepper and mustard are mixtures of taste with muscular sensations.

Thus tastes are mixed with pressure sensations. Sometimes sensations of taste, smell, pressure, heat, cold, etc., combine into a sensory fusion, which is not often analysed into separate parts.

There appears to be contrast in taste sensations analogous to contrast to colours. If you taste distilled water after taking salt, it will taste sweet. A weak solution of a sweet substance tastes more sweet in contrast with salt.

Sweet has a much weaker contrast effect on salt, than salt on sweet. There are similar relations of contrast between salt and acid, and between sweet and acid. Bitter appears not to be affected by contrast effects.

The sense of taste has a little cognitive value. It gives us little information about the qualities of external objects. But it has a high affective value. It gives us pleasure and pain. Different kinds of food with different tastes give us different degrees of pleasure and pain. Bitter medicines give us pain. Tastes cannot be revived in memory.

(ii) Smell:

(a) Receptor and Stimulus:

The olfactory sense-organ is a membrane lining the nasal cavity and composed of a layer of cylindrical cells whose outer ends are exposed to currents of air. It is stimulated by minute chemical particles of matter afloat in the air.

The stimulus is some vapour or gas or odoriferous particles dissolved in the air. There is a mechanical, or probably a chemical, action between the stimulus and the sense-organ. It is conducted to the brain by the olfactory nerve. The olfactory sense is sometimes called a chemical sense.

Henning finds six elementary odours of olfactory sensations as follows:—(1) fruity or etherial odours found in apples, grapes, orange, oil, etc. (2) flowery or fragrant odours found in pansy, carnations, etc. (3) spicy odours, found in cloves, cinnamon etc. (4) resinous odours, found in pitch, turpentine, etc. (5) scorched odours found in burnt substances, tar, pyridue, etc. (6) putrid or foul odours, found in decaying animal matter, hydrogen sulphide, etc.

These are the outstanding odours. There are many intermediate odours. Pure odours are rare. Compound odours are common. They are reducible to two or more of these six odours. The number of combined odours is very large.

(d) Odours Blended with Other Sensations:

There are blends of smells with other sensory qualities. Smells ate mixed with tastes in flavour. They are mixed with touch, e.g. in the ‘pungent’ odours of snuff, ammonia, etc. They are mixed with organic sensations of the respiratory system, e.g., in ‘fresh smell’ of a storehouse etc.

(e) Olfactory Sensitivity:

The sense of smell is the oldest sense. It is keener in dogs than in men. It is keen in bees and other small insects. It is extremely delicate. Camphor can be smelt in a dilution of one part to 400,000th part of water. Its cognitive value is not very great.

Smell sensations ate vague and indistinguishable. But odours call up vivid remembrances of past experiences. They have a close relationship to sex excitement, especially in the lower animals, Strong perfumes have a similar effect. The sense of smell has a greater cognitive value in animals.

In them it is capable of fine discrimination, which depends on the area of the sensitive surface. Odours have a high affective value. They give us pleasure and pain. The flavour of food, the fragrance of flowers, and the like, are a source of greater pleasure.

The sense of smell is easily fatigued. If a person continues to smell a bad odour, he will cease to perceive it. This is called adaptation. A person sitting in a stuffy and badly ventilated room may fail to perceive a bad odour owing to adaptation. But another person coming from the fresh air into the room will at once perceive the bad odour.

Successive contrast affects are found among olfactory sensations also. If a person smells a foul odour and then a fragrant odour, he will more vividly feel the latter. Similarly, after sensing a fragrant smell, a person senses a foul smell more vividly.

But simultaneous contrast effects are not so clear in smell. If two stimuli are applied at the same time to the olfactory sense, the presentation of one stimulus does not bring about a more active response to another.

There are after-images or after-sensations in smell. After we cease to perceive an odour, it lingers in consciousness as an after-sensation. It persists for some time on account of the continued activity of the inner machinery of the sense-organ, even after the withdrawal of the stimulus.

(iii) Cutaneous or Tactual Sensations:

(a) Receptor and Stimulus:

The skin is the organ of cutaneous sensation.

It consists of three layers:

(1) The insensitive outer layer or epidermis,

(2) The sensitive middle layer or dermis, and

(3) The inmost layer composed of fat.

Nerve-fibres issue from the middle layer. Under the epidermis there are conical papillae, some of which contain small egg-shaped bodies composed of cells touch-corpuscles to which nerve-fibres are attached.

There are four distinct organs called cold spots, warmth spots, pain spots, and pressure spots in the skin. If you take a cool blunt-pointed object, like a knitting needle, and explore gentle some portion of the skin, such as the back of the hand, you will find that at certain points there flashes out a distinct sensation of cold.

They are called cold spots. At other spots nothing but pressure will be felt and if the pressure be very gentle, no sensation will be felt in many places. If the point be slightly warmed, you will feel warmth sensa­tion at some spots.

They are called warmth spots. If a fine broom straw or horsehair be substituted for the knitting needle and the skin be explored with a gentle pressure many spots will yield a distinct cutting pain sensation. They are called pain spots. From some spots will issue sensations of pressure.

They called pressure /spots. Cold spots sometimes yield sensations of cold, if they are stimulated with slightly warm objects. They are the paradox sensations of Von Frey. The sensation of heat is a blend of warmth and cold.

There are no heat spots. If we apply a stimulus of increasing warmth to a region of the skin which has both cold and warmth spots, we feel for some time only the warmth but when the stimulus has reached a certain temperature, the cold spots, suddenly and paradoxically, give us sensations of cold and, the blend of warmth and of para­doxical cold is felt as heat.

Burning hot is probably a combination of warmth, cold and pain. The tip of the tongue and the tips of the fingers are very sensi­tive to touch the cheek and the forearm to heat the cornea to pain. A pain spot yields a pain sensation, even if it is explored with a cold or hot heedle. Cutaneous pain, therefore, is a kind of sensation distinct from the feeling of a pin.

(b) Primary Skin Sensations:

There are four primary cutaneous sensa­tions: coolness, warmth, pressure and pain. Some recognize touch and tickle in addition to them. Compared to touch, as when the skin is lightly touched with a dull pencil point, pressure is felt as more dull and deep. Tickle is aroused by drawing a light bristle across the back of the hand, especially if contacts are made with hairs.

(c) Compound Skin Sensations:

Many cutaneous sensations are compound sensations. Itch is the combination of touch, tickle, and mild pain. Moistness is the combination of cold and pressure. Certain stinging sensations are combinations of touch, pain and warmth.

Hardness and softness are combinations of touch with resistance encountered by the muscles. They are qualities of objects and are per­ceived. They are not qualities of stimuli which are sensed. Roughness and smoothness also are combinations of touch and pressure with muscular sensations of resistance.

In roughness there are irregular and discontinuous pressure sensations. In smoothness there are uniform and continuous pressure sensations. Tickle is a variety of gentle touch mingled with organic sensations.

There is adaptation in the sense of touch. One may become quite insensitive in a short time to warmth, cold, and pressure, but not to pain. One becomes insensitive to the pressure of clothes. A cook becomes insensitive to warmth while cooking food in a fire.

A labourer becomes insensitive to cold while labouring in winter with insufficient clothes. But a person cannot be in­sensitive to pain. He may neglect a pain, but when he turns attention to it, he feels the sensation. Odours become weak through adapta­tion. But severe pains do not become less severe as they continue.

The sense of touch is the primitive sense-organ. The other sense-organs are said to have been evolved from it. It has high cognitive value. It can discriminate different degrees of pressure, heat, cold and pain. Active touch, i.e., touch combined with muscular sensations give us knowledge of movement, resistance position, distance, and direction of material objects.

(iv) The Sense of Hearing:

(a) Receptor and Stimulus:

The ear is the sense-organ for sounds. The stimulus consists in vibrations of the air. Air waves are produced alternate condensation and rarefaction of particles of air. Any vibrating body which can produce such changes in the air waves are the stimuli of sound sensations.

The ear consists of three parts:

(1) The external ear of auricle,

(2) The middle ear or tympanum, and

(3) The internal ear or labyrinth.

The external ear gathers the sound waves and transmits them to the middle ear. The sound waves strike the ear-drum called the tympanic membrane, and set it in vibration. This vibration is conducted by means of three tiny bones, called the hammer, the anvil and the stirrup, to the membrane at the close of the middle ear.

The labyrinth consists of three parts, viz., (i) the vestibule, (ii) the semicircular canals, and (iii) the cochlea. The cochlea contains a membrane called the basilar membrane, on which is seated the organ of corti, consisting of rods and cells.

This is the real organ of hearing. The nerve-fibres issuing out of the nerve-cells compose the auditory nerve. The vibration of the membrane at the end of the middle ear sets the membrane in the cochlea into sympathetic vibration.

The nerve-cells which are located along the harp of the cochlea translate these vibrations into the nerve currents which are conducted by the auditory nerve to the brain. Then sensations of sound are produced in the mind.

An auditory sensation is the response of the ear to air vibrations. Auditory sensations are of two kinds: tones and noises. Tones are musical sounds. Noises are non-musical sounds. Tones are produced by regular and periodic air vibrations. Noises are produced by irregular and non-periodic air vibrations. Tones are smooth and steady noises are mixed and irregular.

(c) Pitch, Timbre, Consonance and Dissonance:

Tones have pitch, timbre, and harmony or discord. Pitch means the highness or lowness of a tone. The soprano voice has a high pitch, the base a low pitch. Pitch depends upon the rate or frequency of air vibrations.

The greater the number of vibrations which consecutively stimulate the ear in a second, the higher is the pitch. Hence the pitch of a sound depends on the length of the air wave a low note depends on a long, and a high note on a short wave length.

Timbre is the peculiar quality of a tone produced in a particular musical instrument, differ­ent musical instruments may give the same note or pitch with the same loudness, but they can easily be distinguished by their timbre. Timbre depends upon the complexity of air waves.

It is due to the mingling of the fundamental tone or ground tone with overtones or partial tones. It depends on the number of overtones produced by any musical note whose pitch is heard. It is the peculiar characteristic of a tone by which we identify it as proceeding from a particular human voice.

Certain tones fuse with one another and produce an agreeable effect in consciousness. This is called harmony or consonance.

This depends on the proportions of the rates of vibration. Other tones refuse to fuse and are harsh and discordant in their effect upon us. They are disagreeable. They produce discord or dissonance. Loudness or intensity of a sound depends upon the amplitude of air waves the greater is the amplitude, the louder is the sound. The amplitude of air waves determines the loudness of sounds.

The volume or extensity of sounds depends upon the area or extent of the sounding object. The roaring of a lion is more voluminous than the voice of a man. The sound of the waves of the sea is more voluminous than the murmur of a stream.

Let us arrange the attributes of sound sensations with their physical antecendens in pairs. Tone X periodic vibration noise =non-periodic vibration pitch = vibration rate timbre = vibration composition intensity or loudness = amplitude of vibra­tion. Volume = area of the sounding object.

The sense of hearing has a high degree of discriminating power. It is probably lacking in local character. It can give us knowledge of succession and help us in perceiving time. It is a great aid to the acquisition of knowledge through language.

Its emotive value is very great. The charms of music are derived from it. The semicircular canals in the inner car are responsible for the sense of balance or equilibrium. They constitute the static sense. They have nothing to do with hearing.

(e) Helmholtz’s Resonance Theory of Hearing:

The sense cells are situated on the basilar membrane. It is like an elastic tape extending the length of the cochlea from its bottom to its apex, and fastened to bones at the two ends. It has fibres crosswise. It is widest at the top and narrowest at the bottom. When sound waves enter into the labyrinth, they produce ripples in the liquid of the cochlea, which make the fibres of the basilar membrane vibrate sympathetically.

The different regions of the basilar membrane are turned to sound waves of different lengths. Sounds of high pitch produce short waves in the liquid of the cochlea, which produce sympathetic vibrations in the short fibres near the bottom of the basilar membrane.

Sounds of low pitch produce long waves in the liquid, which produce sympathetic vibrations in the long fibres near the apex. Intermediate tones produce waves of medium length in the liquid, which set the fibres of medium length in the middle of the basilar membrane vibrating sympathetically.

When waves of different lengths are produced, in the liquid, the fibres of the different regions of the basilar membrane are set in sympathetic vibration. A person hears high, low, and intermediate tones through the sympathetic vibrations of the fibres of the different regions of the basilar membrane.

The bottoms of the basilar membranes of many persons deaf to high notes have been found to be impaired on post-mortem examination. This fact lends support to the theory of Helmholtz.

(v) The Visual Sensations:

(a) Receptor and Stimulus:

The eye is the sense-organ for visual sensations. Light waves are the stimuli. The proper organ is the retina within the eye-ball. Light waves act upon the retina, and the photo-chemical action is conducted to the brain by the optic nerve. The rods and the cones in the retina are the proper receptors, in sensations.

The eye-ball is spherical in size. It has three coats. The tough outer coat is called the sclerotic to which are attached six external muscles that move it. Inside the sclerotic, there is the choroid coat filled with a dense dark pigment.

It makes the eye impervious to light except through the cornea and the pupil. Inside the choroid there is proper sense-organ for vision. There is a round opening in front of the sclerotic, closed by a transparent substance called the cornea. Back of the cornea there is the anterior chamber filled with a liquid called the aqueous humour. Behind it there is the iris, a round black disc with a hole in the centre called the pupil.

The pupil contracts and expands to admit more or less light into the eye-ball. In dim light it expands to admit more light in bright light it contracts to admit less light. Immediately behind the iris, there is the double-convex crystalline lens surrounded by the ciliary muscle and ciliary processes, which accommodate, it to objects at different distances.

The lens with its attachments constitutes the mechanism of accommodation. Behind the lens there is the large main chamber of the eye filled with a liquid called the vitreous humour. It fills the cavity between the lens and the retina. Behind it there is the retina.

The point of the retina at which the optic nerve enters the eye-balls is called the blind spot which is insensitive to light. If you fix your vision on the cross with one eye dosed and the other eye unmoved and move the figure slowly towards the eye, at a certain point you cannot see the cross because the image will fall on the blind spot of the retina.

It is devoid of rods and cones. Nearly at the centre of the retina there is the yellow spot, the point of clearest vision. In its centre there is a pit or depression, the fovea centralis. In the fovea there are only cones. As one proceeds from the fovea, the rods become more numerous, the cones are less numerous, until at the periphery the cones are almost entirely absent.

Light passes through the cornea where it is refracted. Then it passes through the aqueous humour. It is admitted into the inside of the eye-ball through the pupil in the iris. Then it passes through the lens where it is again refracted.

Then it passes through the vitreous humour, and finally reaches the retina where it sets up neural changes which are conducted by the optic nerve to the brain. Then sensations of brightness of colours are produced in the mind.

(b) Brightness and Colour:

Visual Sensations are of two kinds:

(1) Sensations of brightness, and

Brightness sensations are produced by mixed light waves of various lengths. Pure colour sensations are produced by homogeneous light waves of waves of practically equal length. The more homogeneous are the light waves, the more saturated—the purer—are the colours. In fact, we never got colour sensations without brightness sensation also. The intensity of colour sensation depends upon the amplitude of light waves.

They vary in length, in amplitude and in form. Different lengths of waves give us different colour sensations. Varia­tions in the amplitudes of waves account for the intensities of the colour sensations. Very often we see several waves of different lengths or amplitudes combined.

This combination gives a variation of form of the total wave. The wave form gives us sensations of satura­tion. The saturation of the colour sensation depends upon the mix­ture of wave lengths. The more the mixture of wave the less is the saturation.

The visual sensations are generally divided into two groups, the colour and colourless qualities. A great many colours are recognized which are given particular names red, orange, yellow, yellow-green, green, green-blue, blue, indigo, violet, purple, etc. all these colours are not elementary. Or, are some of them combi­nations of elementary colours?

There are four primary colour sensations, red, yellow, green and blue. The colour-tone of the visual sensa­tion depends upon the wave-length of the stimulus. A wave-length of 760 millionths of a millimeter give red, one of 605 gives yellow, one of 500 is green, and one of 470 gives blue-Red, yellow, green and blue are the primary colours. All other colours are blends of these primary colours.

Orange is a mixture of red and yellow. A deep orange has a reddish hue. It also contains a tinge of yellow. We cannot see in it any other colour. It seems to be a blend of red and yellow. Some orange are very much like red others are very much like yellow.

We can arrange whole series of hues, beginning with red ending with yellows Beyond yellow, we can arrange a series of hues, which begin with yellow, and are slightly tinged with green, later become an even mixture of yellow and green and finally merges with pure green.

Beyond green, we can arrange another series of hues, which begin with green and are slightly tinged with blue, later become an even mixture of green and blue, blue-green, or peacock, and finally merge with pure blue.

Thus, orange is a blend of red and yellow. Violet is a blend of red and blue. Purple is a mixture of red and violet. Peacock is a mixture of blue and green. Indigo is a mixture of deep blue with a slight tinge of red. Indigo violet and purple are steps in continuum between blue and red.

All colour sensations are continuous. They form a belt which describes a circle called the colour circle. It consists either of red, yellow, green and blue, or a blend of any two of these which are adjoining in a circle.

In addition to the colours, black and white are two other elementary visual qualities. White introspectively is not like red, yellow, green, or blue, nor is it like black. The same is true of black it is not like red, yellow, green, or blue nor is it like white. Black and white distinctive sensations.

Compound colours result also from the blending of red, yellow, green, and blue with a grey of a lighter or darker shade. Pink is a mixture of red and light grey. Olive is a blend of yellow and green, and moderately dark grey. Brown is a combination of dark grey and orange. All visual sensations may be reduced to the primary quali­ties, red, yellow, blue, green, black and white.

We should remember that colours are sensations: they exist in our consciousness they cannot mix with one another. Only the external stimuli, namely, the light waves are mixed in order to produce unique colour sensations which are called compound colour.

(f) Complementary Colours:

Two wave lengths of light, which, when acting on the retina, give a sensation of white or gray, are called complementary, red and blue-green, green and purple, yellow and indigo-blue, orange and green blue, violet and yellow- green are complementary colours.

There are two kinds of visual after-images, positive and negative. They are due to the prolonged stimulation of the retina after the withdrawal of the stimulus. They should be called after-sensations. If you look at a bright light and quickly look towards a dark surface you will see a patch of light for some time. This is a positive after­image.

The colour of the positive after-image is the same as that of the inducing colour, but only weaker in intensity. If you look at a piece of red paper for ten or fifteen seconds and then look at a white wall or paper, you will see a greenish spot of the shape of the red paper.

This is a negative after-image. If instead of red paper you use a piece of blue paper, when you look at the white background you will see a yellow patch. This is also a negative after-image. The colour of a negative after-image is complementary to that of the inducing colour. Try looking at a white paper. You will find that the negative after-image will be black.

Blue and yellow, red and green, clash with each other. This is called colour contrast. A girl with red hair should not put on a green dress, for the green will make the hair look redder. Yellow and blue appear yellower and bluer by the side of each other than when seen apart. These are examples of simultaneous contrast which is peculiar to the sense of sight.

(h) Successive Colour Contrast:

There is also successive contrast among colour sensations. Look at a bright surface and then at a surface of medium brightness it will appear dark. Look again at the surface of medium brightness, and then at the bright surface it will appear bright. Blue and yellow are complementary to each other. Look at blue and then at yellow the latter will appear more saturated than usual. These are examples of successive contrast.

Some persons are totally colour blind. They see all colours in terms of their brightness, e.g., as white, grey, or black. They are colour blind to blue and yellow as Well as to red and green. Total colour-blindness, amounts to red vision, which gives white and black, or light and dark but none of the spectral colours.

Some persons are partially colour blind. Most of them fail to see red and green and combinations of red and green but can see other colours. Red-green blindness is very uncommon among women. But it is present in three or four per cent of men. Blue-yellow blindness is another variety of partial colour blindness.

Different parts of the retina around the fovea are sensitive to all colours. Red and green are only seen accurately for a short distance outside this region. Yellow and blue are lost next. All colours appear white or grey in the extreme periphery. The outermost zone of the retina, where cones are very scarce, is almost totally colour ­blind.

Rod vision and cone vision—Go into a dark room, and at first all seems black to you but gradually you begin to see things, because your retina become dark-adapted. Come out of the dark room, and your eyes are ‘blinded’ but gradually your retina becomes light-adapted and you can see distinctly.

While you are in a dark room, you see only light and shade, but no colours. The fovea has only cones, and not rods. It has the best colour vision. It cannot be well dark-adapted. Twilight vision in dim light is rod vision.

When we enter into a room illuminated with blue, red, yellow, or green light, at first we perceive all objects there coloured blue, red, yellow, or green. But after some time, the eyes get adapted to the colour, and we see objects in their natural colours, as if they were in white light. This phenomenon is called, colour-adaptation.

(k) The Retina’s Own Light:

Even when we are in a dark room from which external light is shut out, we continue to have greyish light sensations. When in a dark room we press an eye-ball, we perceive specks of light. These light sensations are due to the retina’s own light.

(l) Physiological Theories of Colour Vision:

Young and Helmholtz maintain that there are three substances in the retina, which produce sensations of violet, green and red, when they are stimulated by light waves. When any two substances are stimulated, sensations of mixed colours are produced.

When all the three substances are stimulated, the sensation of white is produ­ced. If the substance corresponding to red is insensitive, red-blindness occurs. If the substance corresponding to green is insensitive, green-blindness occurs.

But if the substance corresponding to red or green is insensitive, a red-blind or green-blind person cannot see white, which is a compound colour. But this is not a fact. So the theory is not right.

Hering maintains that there are three retinal substances, which being stimulated by light waves produce three pairs of colour sensations, red-green, blue-yellow, and white-black through assimilation and dissimilation: Red, green, blue and yellow are the four primary colours white and black are neutral tints.

This theory adequately explains how complementary colours mixed equally produce the sensation of white. When assimilation and dissimilation of the red-green substance or the blue-yellow substance are simultaneously aroused, they neutralize each other, and produce the sensation of white.

But, according to this theory, a red-blind person ought to be green-blind also, because the same retinal substance produces the sensations of red and green. But sometimes red-blind persons are not green-blind also. Further, bluish green is complementary to red, and indigo-blue complementary to yellow. Pure green and pure blue are not complementary to red and yellow respectively. So Hering’s Theory also is not quite satisfactory.

Ladd Franklin maintains that the different zones of the retina are sensitive to different colours. The central zone (fovea centralis) composed of cone cells is sensitive to all colours. The intermediate zone composed to cone cells and rod cells is sensitive to blue and yellow, white and black.

But it is insensitive to red and green. The outermost zone composed of rod cells is sensitive to white and black only. But it is insensitive to the other colours. This part, of the retina only responds to light-waves in totally colour-blind persons, who see only white and black.

The intermediate part of the retina responds to light-waves in red-green blind persons. The central or innermost part of the retina responds to light-waves in normal persons, who see all colours. This theory appears to be satisfactory.

(vi) Relatively of Sensations:

The existence, quality, and quantity of sensations are felt in relation to other sensations. This fact is called relativity of sensations by Hoffding.

(1) The existence of sensation is experienced in relation to other sensations. It cannot be felt without relation to them. We are always hearing some indistinct sounds which are not noticed. But whenever a louder sound or a significant faint sound occurs, it catches our attention, and is noticed.

So a sensation of sound is left in relation to a background of other indistinct sounds. Similarly we always feel some tactual sensations produced by clothes, contact with the ground, or chairs, etc. But they are not noted. But if somebody touches our hands, we notice the tactual sensation at once. Thus the existence of sensations is appreciated in relation to other sensations, or in contrast with them.

(2) The quality of a sensation is experience in contrast with other sensations. Dip your hand into hot water, and then into warm water. The warm water will be experienced as cool. But dip another hand into warm water. It will be experienced as warm. Eat a bitter fruit (e.g., moribilinum), and then taste water it will appear sweet. So the quality of a sensation is relative to other sensations.

(3) The quantity or intensity of a sensation is experienced in relation to the quantity or intensity of the preceding sensation. A person carrying a load of one maund does not feel the increase of the weight by one seer. But a person carrying a weight of one seer feels an increase of it by half a seer.

So the intensity of an appreciable sensation is relative to that of an original sensation. This phenomenon is called relativity of sensations.

Sensation Blend and Sensation Pattern:

Compound sensations are reducible to primary or elementary sensations.

They are of two kinds:

(1) The blend as well as the pattern of sensations is apprehended as a unit. In a blend the component sensations are so fused together that they cannot be easily separated from one another. They lose some of their own qualities in the sensory fusion which has its own characteristic quality.

Yet they can be distinguished from one another by careful attention. In a pattern, on the other hand, the component sensations do not lose their characteristic qualities in the compound sensation, but they are so spread out in space or time, they can easily be distinguished from one another.

For example, the taste of lemonade is a blend of sweet, sour, cold and lemon odour it is sensory fusion of taste sensation, temperature sensation, and olfactory sensation, which has the effect of a single characteristic sensation. It can be analysed into component sensations by careful attention, but it ordinarily appears as a unit. This is the characteristic of blends.

Heat is a cutaneous blend of warm, cold and pain sensa­tions. Orange is a visual blend of red and yellow. The compound sensation, aroused by touching the skin simultaneously with a ring or a square is a spatial pattern. A rhythm or a tune is a temporal pattern. The visual sensation of a patch of colour is a spatial pattern. It spreads out in space. The visual sensation of light being turned down is a temporal pattern.


Empathy for others' pain rooted in cognition rather than sensation

The ability to understand and empathize with others' pain is grounded in cognitive neural processes rather than sensory ones, according to the results of a new study led by University of Colorado Boulder researchers.

The findings show that the act of perceiving others' pain (i.e., empathy for others' pain) does not appear to involve the same neural circuitry as experiencing pain in one's own body, suggesting that they are different interactions within the brain.

"The research suggests that empathy is a deliberative process that requires taking another person's perspective rather than being an instinctive, automatic process," said Tor Wager, the senior author of the study, director of the Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Laboratory and Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at CU-Boulder.

A study detailing the results was published online today in the journal eLife.

Empathy is a key cornerstone of human social behavior, but the complex neural interactions underlying this behavior are not yet fully understood. Previous hypotheses have suggested that the same brain regions that allow humans to feel pain in their own bodies might activate when perceiving the pain of others.

To test this idea, the researchers compared patterns of brain activity in human volunteers as they experienced moderate pain directly (via heat, shock, or pressure) in one experimental session, and watched images of others' hands or feet being injured in another experimental session. When volunteers watched images, they were asked to try to imagine that the injuries were happening to their own bodies.

The researchers found that the brain patterns when the volunteers observed pain did not overlap with the brain patterns when the volunteers experienced pain themselves. Instead, while observing pain, the volunteers showed brain patterns consistent with mentalizing, which involves imagining another person's thoughts and intentions.

The results suggest that within the brain, the experience of observing someone else in pain is neurologically distinct from that of experiencing physical pain oneself.

"Most previous studies focused only on the points of similarity between these two distinct experiences in a few isolated brain regions while ignoring dissimilarities. Our new study used a more granular analysis method," said Anjali Krishnan, the lead author of the study and a post-doctoral research associate in the Institute of Cognitive Science at CU-Boulder while the research was conducted. She is currently an assistant professor at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York.

This new analysis method identified an empathy-predictive brain pattern that can be applied to new individuals to obtain a brain-related 'vicarious pain score,' opening new possibilities for measuring the strength of activity in brain systems that contribute to empathy.

The results may open new avenues of inquiry into how the brain regions involved in empathy help humans to relate to others when they experience different types of pain. Future studies may also explore the factors that influence one's ability to adopt another's perspective and whether it might be possible to improve this ability.


Types of Stroke That Cause Neglect

Neglect usually develops after a stroke that damages the parietal lobe of the brain, but sometimes can also occur with involvement of the frontal lobe or deep structures in the brain, such as the thalamus.

Neglect most often occurs after a stroke that affects the non-dominant side of the brain—more often the right side. Usually, language is not severely affected by neglect because language function is located on the dominant side of the brain.

There are differences between strokes on the right side of the brain and strokes on the left side of the brain, and these differences are more difficult to predict for people who are left-handed.


The Emotional Impact of the Pain Experience

Introduction

Maris Pasquale, LCSW, has been the social worker for Hospital for Special Surgery's Ambulatory Care Center Pain Management Clinic for the past four years, working with patients who have musculoskeletal pain due to rheumatologic and orthopedic pain conditions.

The Experience of Pain

Many different factors influence the experience of pain, which is different for everyone. These include:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Culture
  • Ethnicity
  • Spiritual beliefs
  • Socio-economic status
  • Emotional response
  • Support systems
  • Life before pain onset

Other factors can include a learned response that can be related to the response of your family. Parents, for example, may respond to a child’s pain in a certain manner, setting a foundational pain response for an individual that may influence future pain experiences. Also, societal and medical care systems can impact the pain experience. For example, you may not have access to the care of a physician who is an expert in managing pain.

Additionally, changes in functioning, role (societal, social, or family), daily routines, job status, and sleep disturbance may contribute to chronic pain. These factors can cause distress which may also increase pain.

Some common emotional responses to pain can include anxiety, depression, anger, feeling misunderstood, and demoralization.

According to a 2004 study, individuals who are experiencing chronic pain in primary care settings have a higher probability to experience anxiety and depressive disorders than those who are not.(1)

It is important to recognize whether these factors are prevalent in your life. If they are, it's important to seek help from your primary care doctor or social worker, or call 1-800-LIFENET, a multilingual crisis intervention hotline.

Emotions and the Chronic Pain Cycle

Pain is influenced by emotions, and the cycle of pain and emotions are interrelated. Emotions may directly impact physical change as well. For example, when you are anxious or angry, your muscles may tighten, and that physical change may also contribute to increased pain. Another challenge may be that patients might feel stigmatized when they demonstrate intense emotions like these in the context of their treatment.

Believing that you have control over your life and can continue to function despite the pain or subsequent life changes has been shown to decrease depression.

Impact of Pain on Identity

How you identify yourself to others is an important element of your individuality, and having chronic pain and not knowing when it will ever go away, if ever, is a huge issue that can change the course of your identity.

If you are experiencing chronic pain, you might not be able to do certain tasks or fulfill certain roles that were once common, and that can feel disempowering.

Where and how people derive value in their identity is culturally informed, including gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Depending on what roles or characteristics are most valued to an individual, impairment in that area will most affect his or her identity and make the pain feel more pronounced.

For example, someone who feels culturally that physical strength and ability is extremely highly valued may feel the impact of the pain experience more significantly if it impairs this ability and he or she can no longer complete the same physical tasks.

Similarly, the invisibility of pain can be isolating, especially in cases when a person’s outwards appearance remains the same.

Impact of Pain on Family

As you experience pain symptoms, either acute or chronic, this can shift family patterns and roles. For example, a parent might not be able to fulfill certain tasks anymore and communication between family members may change based on not wanting to “bother” the affected member.

Other family factors may include increased stress, financial burden, effect on sexuality and other intimate relationships, and potential resentment in the relationship. For family members of people in chronic pain, a goal is to strike a balance between validating patient’s pain and experience while helping him/her stay involved in life.

Impact of Pain on the Medical System

According to another study in 2005, patients report not feeling heard by their doctors because they may not agree with the medical interpretation of pain.(2) Patients may believe that the pain is related to other ailments or medical history and disagree with the doctor’s opinion.

When patients’ pain does not respond to a certain treatments or interventions, they may feel like symptom magnifiers and complainers. As a result, patients may feel demoralized or feel they are not being heard or taken seriously, all increasing patient distress.

Communicating with Your Doctor

Pain is a disease of reporting. Keeping a home journal may help to be more descriptive, accurate, and increase recall, since pain experience may be different on each day.

To speak the same language as your doctor, become more familiar with common pain scales. Familiarity with these scales and anticipating the way pain is measured medically may help communicate this very personal experience in the most objective way.

Common Pain Assessment Tools

Brief Pain Inventory

The BPI measures both the intensity of pain and the interference of pain in the patient's life. It also asks the patient about pain relief, pain quality, and patient perception of the cause of pain. BPI is based on scales:

“0” represents “no pain” and “10” represents “pain as bad as you can imagine”

“0” represents “does not interfere” and “10” represents “completely interferes”

Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale

This scale, which goes from Level 0-10, asks the person in pain to choose from a series of faces that best indicate the level of pain he or she is experiencing.

Level 0 is a happy face, indicated as “No Hurt”, and the scale goes up to Level 10, which is a sad/pained face with tears, indicated as “Hurts Worst.” More information and a visual example are available at http://www.wongbakerfaces.org/.

Numeric Verbal Faces Pain Scales

This scale also uses facial pictures and a rating scale of 0-10. Level “0” is “No Pain,” while Level “10” is “Pain as Bad As It Could Be.”

Describing Pain Experience

What is pain? Other commonly used terms: Aches, soreness, discomfort.

Be descriptive: Include location, timing, and intensity. Using descriptive words will help medical team be more informed about type of pain, where it roots, etc. Examples: Burning, aching, stabbing, piercing, throbbing.

Maladaptive Pain Beliefs and Ways to Address Them

As we experience pain, we may have many different beliefs of how we should live our life with the pain we are experiencing these beliefs may be maladaptive and might hinder our functioning level. In other words, some coping and adaptive mechanisms used by those with chronic pain may not be the most physically or psychologically beneficial.

Examples of maladaptive beliefs as related to pain are:

  1. Catastrophizing: Exaggerated, negative reaction towards actual or anticipated pain experiences. In this case, patients report higher pain, poorer physical functioning, more depression and stress, and more disability.(3,4,5)
  2. Pain is sign of damage.
  3. Pain means activity should be avoided.
  4. Pain leads to disability.
  5. Pain is uncontrollable.
  6. Pain is permanent.

According to a 2007 study, these maladaptive beliefs can cause higher pain, poorer physical functioning, depression, stress, and more disability.(3)

Maintaining a sense of control over your life and believing you can continue to function, despite the pain, can decrease risk of depression. Gaining control can mean finding more resources to understand the impact of pain, such as patient education about how to live with pain, communicating to your doctor about your different concerns and challenges, discussing if pain is a sign of damage or whether activity can be continued based on tolerance, and accepting your situation.

Coping with Pain through Education and Spirituality

It is important for you to ask for any educational materials that can be helpful to understand the symptoms of pain and how to reduce pain, as well as effective methods to acknowledge your feelings and communicate them to others.

Also, many people find it effective to bring spirituality into their life as a way of coping with pain. Several studies have shown that spiritual belief can help reduce pain. If you so choose, you should be able to feel comfortable to share this component with your health care providers and let them know which methods you feel are helpful to the pain experience.

Mindful Meditation and Other Techniques

Mindful meditation, shown to help decrease stress and pain, involves focusing the mind to increase awareness of the present moment. This method to help cope with pain can be easily done anywhere, even on the bus.

An example of mindful meditation would be to sit up straight, close your eyes, and put aside all thoughts of the future and past. Staying present, the focus of awareness remains on your breathing.

This exercise could be done for just a couple of minutes, letting your thoughts come and go while being aware of your current state. It can be most helpful during stressful times such as holidays or during difficult life events.

Taking a few minutes in the day to do practice mindful meditation can be beneficial. Through performing this kind of exercise, you can create a sense of control, which is crucial in making your pain experience more manageable.

In addition to mindful meditation, yoga and tai chi are recommended.

Resources

Some helpful websites may enhance knowledge and understanding of coping with pain:

Most importantly, the impact of pain is an entirely individual experience.

References

1. Gatchel, R. J. Comorbidity of chronic pain and mental health disorders: The biopsychosocial perspective. American Psychologist, 59 (8), 795-805.

2. Harding, G., Parsons, S., Rahman, A., & Underwood, M. (2005). "It struck me that they didn't understand pain:" The specialist pain clinic experience of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 53 (5), 691-696.

3. Karoly, P. & Ruehlman, L. (2007). Psychosocial aspects of pain-related life task interference: An exploratory analysis in a general population sample. Pain Medicine, 8 (7), 563-572.

4. Gatchel, R., Peng, Y., Peters, M., Fuchs, P. and Turk, D. (2007) The Biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: Scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin, 133:581–624.

5. Peters, M., Vlaeyen J., and Weber, W. (2005) The joint contribution of physical pathology, pain-related fear and catastrophizing to chronic back pain disability. Pain, 113:45-50.

Summary by Lay Tep, SLE Workshop Coordinator and Social Work Intern. Updated summary by Steve Rudolf, SLE Workshop Coordinator and Social Work Intern.

Authors

Maris Pasquale, LMSW
Orthopedic Social Worker, Ambulatory Care Center,
Department of Social Work Programs
Hospital for Special Surgery


Consequences of suppressing emotions

Suppressing our emotions when they need to be expressed causes us to dump them elsewhere on innocent people if we’re not careful. If we keep on suppressing our negative emotions, they get buried in our subconscious. This often results in mood swings, unexplained sadness, and mild depression.

Then, when we face a future problem, we won’t just feel bad because of the problem at hand but also because of these suppressed emotions we’re holding on to. Therefore, the intensity of our bad emotions will be more than others who face similar problems.

Suppressed emotions that are bottled up intensify over time and express themselves as anger or aggression outbursts. Studies confirm that bottling up emotions can make people more aggressive. 1

Suppressed emotions can also leak out in the form of dreams or nightmares. If you’re trying to hide an emotion in your waking life, it may get expressed in your dreams. If you continue to leave the emotion unexpressed, you might even get recurring dreams about it.

Suppressing negative emotions may lead to depression, low self-esteem, and even physical illness in extreme cases. Suppressing emotions is a risk factor in premature death, including death from cancer. 2

Research has shown that many illnesses have psychological reasons that are directly or indirectly related to stress. Suppressing emotions is an effective way to experience chronic stress because it’s mentally demanding and exhausting. 3


Can We Think the Pain Away?

I have good news and bad news…

100% of the time, pain is a construct of the brain.

Lorimer Moseley, from his surprisingly funny TED talk, Why Things Hurt 14:33

If that is true — and it really is technically true21 — does that mean can we think brain-built pain away? Can our minds un-build pain? Yes and no, because, as Dr. Moseley explains, “Pain really is in the mind, but not in the way you think.”22 This is a good news, bad news kind of thing. I will get to the good news, but let’s get the bad news out of the way first:

It’s not really possible to think pain away in general. Many wise, calm, confident optimists still have chronic pain.

Pain is a motivator. It exists to get us to act. We hurt when our brains reckon we should do something differently, for safety … but safety is not always possible. The nature of the danger isn’t always clear, or avoidable.

And the brain worries too much: from hangnails to fibromyalgia, it overstates the danger (for rock solid evolutionary reasons), and it can’t be overruled by wishing, force of will, or a carefully cultivated good attitude. The brain powerfully but imperfectly controls how we experience potentially threatening stimuli, but I’m sorry to report that you do not control your brain.

But we do have considerable control over the context in which our brain lives. We can change our circumstances. We can improve the odds that our brains will become less concerned about our tissues, and lower the volume of the alarm. It’s not mind over pain in the sense of a neurological “hack” or an impressive act of willpower, but it’s not nothing either.

I explore all the various mind-over-pain possibilities in as practical away as possible in a separate article: Mind Over Pain: Pain can be profoundly warped by the brain, but does that mean we can think the pain away?.


WHY DOES THE PAIN NOT SHOW UP IMMEDIATELY AFTER INJURY?

“Nearly 1.7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) occur every year in the US, and they have a significant impact on the lives of patients and their families. Headache is the most common complaint, and it can occur after mild, moderate or severe injury. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) includes diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic headache. According to ICHD, post-traumatic headaches must occur within seven days of injury.

The rule that headaches must occur within one week of injury may not reflect reality. Some individuals appear to develop post-traumatic headache in a delayed manner. In the study by Walker about one quarter of the patients without headaches immediately after TBI had ‘delayed onset’ headaches at six months.” From the American Migraine Foundation’s website (Post-Traumatic Headaches)

“Is there really such a big difference between the three day delayed onset so commonly discussed in the literature, and the four day delayed onset being claimed by Jane but being rebutted by Workman’s Comp? To claim that this 24 hour or so difference is somehow a deal-breaker for Jane’s claim is ludicrous.” Dr. Russell S. Schierling

And now for the answer to the question Jane is really looking for — why does pain sometimes not show up immediately after injury? Let me start out by saying that delayed onset of pain is, in many instances, more common than the instant onset of pain. Following a quick Google search for “delayed onset pain” I came up with many many attorneys advertising for injured persons. They all basically said something like this quote taken from Nolo dot com.

Soft tissue injuries typically result in pain, swelling, and reduced mobility, but these symptoms may not show up immediately. They can take days, even weeks, to manifest. In addition, soft tissue injuries are not visible on an X-ray. This makes them more challenging to diagnose and document.”

None of these attorneys, however, seemed to have good articles on why this is the case.

The most common reason given for delayed onset of pain was “excitement“. Because there was a good deal of adrenaline surrounding the accident / injury, you didn’t realize you were hurt immediately. Sorry, but except for rare exceptions, I am not buying this. Not to mention, the web is loaded with all sorts of evidence proving Jane’s side of things (HERE is a great example, although it really has nothing to do with her specific problem). The thing is, it’s not like this concept of delayed onset of pain after a physical trauma is anything new, or that it’s solely related to litigation.

Back in 1941 (the year Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese), Martin Brazelay graduated from Harvard with a masters degree in engineering. After working on aircraft design throughout the SECOND WORLD WAR, Brazelay became a Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Syracuse University in 1947.

Upon retirement from teaching and research he became one of the world’s foremost experts on accident reconstruction. In chapter 46 of his 1984 treatise Scientific Automobile Accident Reconstruction (BTW, this thing will cost you over $4,300), Brazelay revealed (he wrote these words as I was graduating from HIGH SCHOOL)…

Whiplash injuries may be present as a result of automobile accidents, even though no physical, radiological or other objective evidence of injury can be found. Sometimes there may be as much as weeks or even months delay between the automobile accident and the experience of symptoms.

Let’s shift gears for a moment and talk about something known as Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness. According to that pinnacle of truth and veracity, Wikipedia (you can double check their definition by looking at any of dozens of studies on PubMed)…

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise. The soreness is felt most strongly 24 to 72 hours after the exercise and is thought to be caused by microtrauma to the muscle fibers. Delayed onset muscle soreness is one symptom of exercise-induced muscle damage. The other is acute muscle soreness, which appears during and immediately after exercise.

Now, listen to what Paul Ingram has to say on the subject in this completely cherry-picked quote (as are many quotes I use) from the November 20, 2016 article on his PainScience site (The Biological Mysteries of “Muscle Fever,” Nature’s Little Tax on Exercise)…

“Medical science can barely even explain DOMS, let alone treat it. [It is caused by] exercise or other physical stresses outside your normal range of intensity — anything you aren’t used to. Even extremely well-conditioned athletes can get DOMS, if they train harder than usual. Eccentric contractions — controlled elongation — cause DOMS far more readily than concentric contractions.

Maybe the worst DOMS I ever had was after a night of dancing and, yes, a little ‘head banging.’ (I grew up in a Canadian logging town AC/DC and Metallica were like gods to us.) Even a little head banging can be hard on neck muscles. I could barely lift my head off my pillow for 3 days.

Neurology never comes up when professionals talk DOMS. It’s really not on anyone’s radar, but it should be. We’ve established that DOMS is obviously more complicated than it seems on the surface, and nothing demonstrates that more clearly than an 2011 study, which showed that it can actually spread — probably via a neurological mechanism — to adjacent muscles groups that were not exercised at all.

Thus DOMS may well often feel much worse and more extensive to some patients than it ‘should’ feel … and with an explanation that isn’t really on anyone’s radar. The biology of pain is never really straightforward, even when it appears to be.”

DOMS, however, is not an “injury” as we think of the term it is due to overworking untrained muscles or really overworking well-trained muscles. If working out too hard has the ability to cause this sort of pain and stiffness — pain and stiffness that peer-review commonly describes as showing up 24 to 72 hours after the initial injury, do you think that a real injury — an injury that physically and mechanically compromises connective tissues — could manifest somewhat differently and potentially worse? In light of what we’ve seen so far, it certainly appears so.

A side note that was doubly interesting about Ingraham’s article is that one of two things he mentioned as actually being potentially beneficial for DOMS was CURCUMIN — the highly anti-inflammatory yellow component of the spice Tumeric — that just just happened to be the topic of my last blog post (see link). Let’s now move out of DOMS and back into the realm of real injuries.

Medical doctor, surgeon, and medico-legal expert, Dr. Colin Tidy of Oxfordshire, England, writing for Patient dot info (Whiplash and Cervical Spine Injury) states that, “Most cases of whiplash injury occur as the result of rear-end vehicle collisions at speeds of less than 14 miles per hour. Patients present with neck pain and stiffness, occipital headache, thoracic back pain and/or lumbar back pain and upper-limb pain and paraesthesia. The clinical symptoms of whiplash injury may not develop until 6-12 hours after the injury, or even after a few days.

Dr. Tidy also mentions that the top risk factor for indicating a potentially serious injury is, “immediate onset of neck pain following the event.” He goes on to say that, “studies have shown that the strongest prognostic indicators are factors that are present before impact. Lankester et al found that the factors that showed significant association with poor outcome on both physical and psychological outcome scales were pre-injury back pain, high frequency of GP attendance, evidence of pre-injury depression or anxiety symptoms, front position in the vehicle and pain radiating away from the neck after injury.

Not sure whether or not Jane had DEPRESSION, but as per what little history she sent me, she did not seem to have pre-existing back issues. However, this little fact shows you why ANTIDEPRESSANTS are one of “THE BIG FIVE“. Now, let me show you another area where delayed onset of pain is considered the norm.

Problems with the jaw (TMJ / TMD) don’t always show up immediately after injury as shown by a 2007 study (Delayed Temporomandibular Joint Pain and Dysfunction Induced by Whiplash Trauma: A Controlled Prospective Study) from the Journal of the American Dental Association.

The authors studied 60 consecutive patients who had neck symptoms after whiplash trauma and were seen at a hospital emergency department. They followed up 59 subjects one full year later. The incidence of new symptoms of TMJ pain, dysfunction or both between the initial examination and follow-up was five times higher in subjects than in control subjects. Our results suggest that one in three people who are exposed to whiplash trauma is at risk of developing delayed TMJ symptoms that may require clinical management.

The jaw problems might be partially explained by a HEADACHE study published five years earlier in the journal Pain (Antinociceptive Reflex Alteration in Acute Posttraumatic Headache Following Whiplash Injury) due simply to the fact that the TEMPORALIS is one of four muscles that allow you to chew (one of the four muscles of mastication). According to the authors, whiplash injuries lead to, “Brainstem-mediated antinociceptive inhibitory reflexes of the temporalis muscle….

In English, this means that anti-pain inhibitory reflexes (reflexes from the brainstem that could best be described as anti anti-pain responses) frequently led to — well, pain, via “reflex abnormalities[which] are considered a neurophysiological correlate of the posttraumatic (cervico)-cephalic pain syndrome[headache]. The authors point to an altered central pain control in acute post-traumatic… following whiplash injury but without neurological deficits, bone injury of the cervical spine, or a combined direct head trauma on average 5 days after the acceleration trauma.

In other words, it took five days for aberrant reflexes from the neck / brainstem to raise their ugly heads and cause headaches after injuries that many doctors would write off as “WHIPLASH” simply because there was no blood, guts, broken bones, or overtly objective physical findings.

A 2001 study from the journal Brain (Delayed Onset and Resolution of Pain: Some Observations and Implications) took things a bit further, opening the door for (delayed) development of more serious complications like possible CENTRAL SENSITIZATION OR CRPS.

Late-onset pains may develop gradually or suddenly, and may be brief or long standing. Pains which develop after an innocuous insult may be associated with slowly evolving sensory changes. However, even long-standing pains, particularly those of nociceptive origin, may resolve sometimes after many years. Resolution, which again can occur gradually or suddenly, may be spontaneous or follow development of another disorder or after therapeutic intervention.

The duration of this pain relief can range from minutes to an indefinite period. It is postulated that mechanisms implicated in acute pain may not be the same as those that subserve pain that develops after a long interval. Those late-onset pains which develop slowly after innocuous lesions may be associated with a variety of slow anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes.

There is, however, a significant difference between an injury to the NECK / brainstem and / or BRAIN, and an injury to the PELVIS or GLUTEAL MUSCLES. However, because of Fascia’s connection to both scar tissue / fibrosis and chronic pain (HERE), the later can sometimes prove problematic and even debilitating.

This leads to to wonder if the delay of days or weeks might be due to the INFLAMMATORY / FIBROTIC aspect of the healing process itself hypersensitizing nerves and leading to Allodynia or Hyperalgia? If you scroll down my COLLAGEN SUPER-PAGE, you come to the section titled The Phases / Stages of Tissue Repair & Healing, in which I deal with its four distinct phases. Remember that SCAR TISSUE was just beginning to be laid down when Jane felt her second buttock pain.


There are many other effective forms of pain management, but our medication-oriented culture promotes drugs as the first approach.

Prescribing of opioids for pain relief quadrupled between 1999 and 2013, as did the number of deaths by overdoses.

Even when people are desperate to try non-drug alternatives for pain relief, they often have a much harder time accessing these alternatives than they do ​getting a prescription for painkillers.

This leaves people with few alternatives for pain management, other than the drugs.


Watch the video: Ο Χρήστος από το Men Of Style στο Giga FM Ιωαννίνων. Men of Style (May 2022).